Effects of superconducting parameters of SnO2 nanoparticles addition on (Bi, Pb)-2223 phase



In this work, nano-SnO2 (<100 nm) added samples in Bi1.7−xPb0.3SnxSr2Ca2Cu3Oy (x = 0.00–0.20) were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase formation, volume fraction and lattice parameters were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Surface morphology and grain connectivity of the samples were identified by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Diamagnetic onset temperatures (T c on ) and hole concentration (p) of SnO2 added samples were determined by ac susceptibiliy measurements. AC susceptibility measurements showed that diamagnetic onset temperatures (T c on ) of samples Sn0 (x = 0.00), Sn1 (x = 0.05), Sn2 (x = 0.10), Sn3 (x = 0.15) and Sn4 (x = 0.20) are 108.559, 109.985, 101.281, 101.670 and 92.676 K, respectively. SEM measurements showed that not only the surface morphology and grain connectivity degrade but also the grain size of the samples decrease with the increase of the Sn addition. Also, addition of SnO2 nanoparticles increases the impurities, voids and porosity. X-ray diffraction patterns of all samples indicated the majority of Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases along with minor impurity phase Ca2PbO4. The volume fraction of the Bi-2223 phase for the sample with x = 0.10 SnO2 showed the highest percentage (49.49) and with further increasing SnO2, the volume fraction of the Bi-2223 phase decreases and Bi-2212 phase increases. All SnO2 nanoparticles added samples showed quite similar lattice parameters compared with non-added sample. These results indicate that nano SnO2 does not have significant impact on the lattice parameters.


SnO2 Critical Current Density Hole Concentration Superconducting Transition Temperature SnO2 Nanoparticles 


  1. 1.
    B. Özçelik, M. Gürsul, A. Sotelo, M.A. Madre, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26, 441–447 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Taghipour, H. Abbasi, H. Sedghi, Phys. B. 405, 1349–1352 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Garnier, S. Marinel, G. Desgardin, J. Mater. Sci. 37, 1785–1788 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.I. Abou-Aly, M.M.H. Abdel Gawad, R. Awad, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 24, 2077–2084 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Ghattas, M. Annabi, M. Zouaoui, F. Ben Azzouz, M. Ben Salem, Phys. C. 468, 31–38 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Z.Y. Jia, H. Tang, Z.Q. Yang, Y.T. Xing, Y.Z. Wang, G.W. Qiao, Phys. C 337, 130–132 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y.C. Guo, Y. Tanaka, T. Kuroda, S.X. Duo, Z.Q. Yang, Phys. C. 311, 65–74 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Wei, J. Schwartz, K.C. Goretta, U. Balachandran, A. Bhargava, Phys. C. 298, 279–288 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Annabi, A.M. Chirgui, F.B. Azzouz, M. Zouaoui, M.B. Salem, Phys. C. 405, 25–33 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Ghattas, M. Annabi, M. Zouaoui, F.B. Azzouz, M.B. Salem, Phys. C. 468, 31–38 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Wei, R. Abd-Shukor, J. Electr. Mater. 36, 1648–1651 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Baqiah, S.A. Halim, M.I. Adam, S.K. Chen, S.S.H. Ravandi, M.A.M. Faisal, M.M. Kamarulzaman, M. Hanif, Solid State Sci. Technol. 17, 81–88 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Zelati, A. Amirabadizadeh, A. Kompany, H. Salamati, J. Sonier, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 27, 2185–2193 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Nabil, A. Yahya, R. Abd-Shukor, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 27, 329–335 (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Agail, R. Abd-Shukor, Appl. Phys. A. 112, 501–506 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    W. Kong, R. Abd-Shukor, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 23, 257–263 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Mawassi, S. Marhaba, M. Roumié, R. Awad, M. Korek, I. Hassan, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 27, 1131–1142 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    U.Al Khawaja, M. Benkraouda, I.M. Obaidat, S. Alneaimi, Phys. C. 442, 1–8 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Hafiz, R. Abd-Shukor, Appl. Phys. A. 120, 1573–1578 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Awad, A.I. Abou-Aly, M.M.H. Abdel Gawad, I. G-Eldeen, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 25, 739–745 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Agail, R. Abd-Shukor, Solid State Sci. Technol. 22, 1–6 (2014)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Bushra, A. Aljurani, M.N. Aldulaimi, Int. J. Curr. Eng. Technol. 5, 1205–1210 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Kocabas, O. Bilgili, N. Yasar, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 22, 643–650 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Romié, S. Marhaba, R. Awad, M. Kork, I. Haasan, R. Mawassi, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 27, 143–153 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    O. Bilgili, K. Kocabas, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25, 2889–2897 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Safran, A. Kılıc, E. Kılıcarslan, H. Ozturk, M. Alp, E. Asikuzun, O. Ozturk, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26, 2622–2628 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Anis-ur-Rehman, J. Alloys Compd. 469, 66–72 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Kocabas, O. Özkan, O. Bilgili, Y. Kadıoglu, H. Yılmaz, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 23, 1485–1492 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Kocabas, M. Ciftcioglu, Phys. Stat. Sol. 177, 539 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    X. Yang, T.K. Chaki, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 6, 343 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Çelebi, Phys. C 316, 251–256 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Marconi, G. Stiufiuc, A.V. Pop, J. Phys 153, 012022 (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K.H. Müler, S.J. Collocott, R. Driver, Phys. C. 191, 339 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    O. Ozturk, M. Akdogan, C. Terzioglu, A. Gencer, J. Phys. 153, 012024 (2009)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    O. Bilgili, K. Kocabas, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26, 1700–1708 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    O. Bilgili, Y. Selamet, K. Kocabas, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 21, 439–449 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsDokuz Eylul UniversityBuca IzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations