Structural, microstructural, optical and electrical properties of spray deposited rare-earth metal (Sm) ions doped CdO thin films

  • P. Velusamy
  • R. Ramesh Babu
  • K. Ramamurthi
  • J. Viegas
  • E. Elangovan


Rare-earth metal, samarium (Sm) ions, doped cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 300 °C by a homemade spray pyrolysis experimental setup. The deposited films were characterized for their structural, microstructural, optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the deposited films belong to the cubic crystal system. The undoped films show a slight preferential growth along (111) diffraction plane, and the (200) plane emerged as the preferential growth direction when the Sm-doping is higher than 0.75 wt%. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis reveals that the average grain size and surface morphology of CdO films are effectively modified by various Sm-doping concentration. The elemental composition of the deposited films was analyzed using energy dispersive spectroscopy. The metal oxide (Cd–O) bond vibrations were observed at 319, 389, 551,779 and 941 cm−1 by micro-Raman studies at room temperature. Oxidation state of Sm3+ was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. A transmittance (ranging 83–86 %) in the visible and NIR region was observed for the various Sm concentrations. The optical band gap estimated varies between 2.39 and 2.67 eV, depending on the Sm-doping concentration. The negative sign of Hall coefficient confirmed the n-type conductivity and the mobility and carrier concentration are in the 45–78 cm2/V s, and 1.0 × 1020–3.36 × 1020 cm−3 range respectively.


Spray Pyrolysis Texture Coefficient Spray Pyrolysis Technique Undoped Film Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis 
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The author, P. Velusamy sincerely acknowledge the Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-620 024 for the financial support provided to carry out this work under the University Research Fellowship Scheme (URF-Ref. No. 47363/Ph.D1/2010). The authors thank Dr. Vasant Sathe, UGC-DAE-CSR, Indore for micro Raman analysis. The author E. Elangovan thanks Mike Tiner and Mustapha Jouiad from Microscopic Suite of Masdar Institute for the facilities (XRD and SEM) and their knowledge transfer.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Velusamy
    • 1
  • R. Ramesh Babu
    • 1
  • K. Ramamurthi
    • 2
  • J. Viegas
    • 3
  • E. Elangovan
    • 3
  1. 1.Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of PhysicsBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and TechnologySRM UniversityKattankulathurIndia
  3. 3.Nano-Optics and Optoelectronic (NOOR) Laboratory, i-Micro, EECS DepartmentMasdar InstituteAbu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates

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