Creep behavior of SnAgCu solders containing nano-Al particles



In our previous work, a small amount of Al nanoparticles can improve the wettability and mechanical properties of SnAgCu lead-free solders. In this paper, creep properties of SnAgCu solder alloys containing 0.1 wt% Al nanoparticles were studied based on creep testing. It is found that with the addition of Al nanoparticles can enhance the creep resistance of SnAgCu solders. And the Garofalo–Arrhenius creep model was used to describe the creep behavior of SnAgCu and SnAgCu–0.1nano Al solder joints, the parameters were determined based on creep testing. And finite element analysis was utilized to represent the accumulated creep response and calculate the creep fatigue life of solder joints.


Fatigue Life Solder Joint Creep Strain Creep Behavior Creep Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The present work was carried out with the supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2012144); the Natural Science Foundation of China (51475220).


  1. 1.
    K.N. Tu, K. Zeng, Tin-lead (SnPb) solder reaction in flip chip technology. Mater. Sci. Eng. R 34(1), 1–58 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L.C. Tsao, Suppressing effect of 0.5 wt% nano-TiO2 addition into Sn-3.5Ag-0.5Cu solder alloy on the intermetallic growth with Cu substrate during isothermal aging. J. Alloy Compd. 509, 8441–8448 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Zhang, J.G. Han, Y.H. Guo, C.W. He, Effect of rare earth Ce on the fatigue life of SnAgCu solder joints in WLCSP device using FEM and experiments. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 597, 219–224 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.M. Xiao, Y.W. Shi, G.C. Xu, R. Ren, F. Guo, Z.D. Xia, Y.P. Lei, Effect of rare earth on mechanical creep-fatigue property of SnAgCu solder joint. J. Alloy Compd. 472(1–2), 198–202 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Zhang, S.B. Xue, L.L. Gao, Y. Chen, S.L. Yu, Z. Sheng, G. Zeng, Microstructure and creep properties of Sn–Ag–Cu lead-free solders bearing minor amount of rare earth Cerium. Solder. Surf. Mount Technol. 22(2), 30–36 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. He, S.N. Ekpenuma, V.L. Acoff, Microstructure and creep deformation of Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi/Cu solder joints. J. Electron. Mater. 37(3), 300–306 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.A. EI-Daly, A.M. EI-Taher, T.R. Dalloul, Improved creep resistance and thermal behavior of Ni-doped Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu lead-free solder. J. Alloys Compd. 587, 32–39 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Zhang, J.G. Han, Y.H. Guo, C.W. He, J. Zhang, Microstructures and properties of SnAgCu solders bearing nano-particles Al. Trans. China Weld. Inst. 34(6), 65–68 (2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.L. Huang, L. Wang, C.M.L. Wu, Creep behavior of eutectic Sn-Ag lead-free solder alloy. J. Mater. Res. 17(11), 2897–2903 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.W. Kim, J.K. Jang, S.O. Ha, S.S. Ha, D.G. Kim, S.B. Jung, Effect of high-speed loading conditions on the fracture mode of the BGA solder joint. Microelectron. Reliab. 48(11–12), 1882–1889 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    W.R. Jong, S.C. Chen, H.C. Tsai, C.C. Chiu, H.T. Chang, The geometrical effects of bumps on the fatigue life of flip-chip packages by Taguchi method. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 25(1), 99–114 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.C. Tsai, W.R. Jong, The significance of underfill on the IC packages subjected to temperature cyclic loading. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 26(12), 1211–1223 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.M.L. Nai, J. Wei, M. Gupta, Using carbon nanotubes to enhance creep performance of lead-free solder. Mater. Sci. Technol. 24(4), 443–448 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Qi, R. Lam, H.R. Ghorbani, P. Snugovsky, J.K. Spelt, Temperature profile effects in accelerated thermal cycling of SnPb and Pb-free solder joints. Microelectron. Reliab. 46(2–4), 574–588 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y.F. Hu, S.B. Xue, Y.X. Wu, FEM analysis of stress and strain and evaluation on reliability of soldered BGA joints under thermal cycling. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China 15(S3), 317–322 (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.H. Zhao, V. Gupta, A. Lohia, D. Edwards, Reliability modeling of lead-free solder joints in wafer-level chip scale packages. J. Electron. Packag. 132(1), 011005 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    B. Vandevelde, M. Gonzalez, P. Limaye, P. Ratchev, E. Beyne, Thermal cycling reliability of SnAgCu and SnPb solder joints: a comparison for several IC-packages. Microelectron. Reliab. 47(2–3), 259–265 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. Zhang, L. Sun, Y.H. Guo, C.W. He, Reliability of lead-free solder joints in CSP device under thermal cycling. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(3), 1209–1213 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    W.D. Zhuang, P.C. Chang, F.Y. Chou, R.K. Shiue, Effect of solder creep on the reliability of large area die attachment. Microelectron. Reliab. 41(12), 2011–2021 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    X.Y. Li, Z.S. Wang, Thermo-fatigue life evaluation of SnAgCu solder joints in flip chip assemblies. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 183(1), 6–12 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Zhang, K.N. Tu, Structure and properties of lead-free solders bearing micro and nano particles. Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 82, 1–32 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. Zhang, L. Sun, Y.W. Guo, C.W. He, Dorn creep model and finite element simulation of SnAgCu-CNT solder joints in FCBFA device. Int. J. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 15(5), 329–335 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liang Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ji-guang Han
    • 1
  • Yong-huan Guo
    • 1
  • Lei Sun
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringJiangsu Normal UniversityXuzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations