ZnO nanorod arrays pre-coated with DCJTB dye for inverted type hybrid solar cells incorporating P3HT donor
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This paper reports the utilization of a fluorescent dye, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetra-methyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) as the surface modifier of ZnO nanorods for inverted type hybrid solar cell application. The DCJTB solution with concentrations of 10 and 15 mM was spin-coated onto the ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate pre-coated with ZnO seed layer. The poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as electron donor was then spin-coated onto ZnO nanorod arrays, followed by the deposition of silver as anode using magnetron sputtering technique. A large portion of pre-coated DCJTB has been redissolved and washed out in the subsequent P3HT spin coating process. Nevertheless, the increase in hydrophobicity of ZnO nanorod arrays pre-coated with DCJTB leads to improved interfacial compatibility between ZnO nanorods and P3HT. As a result, the enhanced exciton dissociation efficiency at the ZnO nanorods/P3HT interfaces results in the increment of short circuit current density and open circuit voltage. In addition, DCJTB residue covering the FTO exposed area could reduce the hole leakage current from P3HT to FTO, hence resulting in higher open circuit voltage. The device with the optimum DCJTB pre-coating concentration of 10 mM exhibited almost two times increase in power conversion efficiency as compared to that of pristine device.
KeywordsHigh Occupied Molecular Orbital Lower Unoccupied Molecular Orbital Power Conversion Efficiency Rubrene Hybrid Solar Cell
This work has been financially supported by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia under DLP-2013-040 research grant. The authors would like to thank Mr. Idris Zulkifle from School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for Ag sputtering. The authors would also like to acknowledge Miss Seow Siew Siew for FESEM characterizations.
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