Characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles prepared using different surfactants by sol–gel method
Titania nanoparticles have been prepared using different surfactants such as, acetic acid (AA), oleic acid (OA), oley amine (OM), and a mixture of OA + OM at room temperature by sol–gel method. TiO2 nanoparticles were collected by centrifugation of the precipitate obtained during gel formation. The collected samples were annealed at 550 and 950 °C to study the effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties. The crystal structure and optical properties of titania nanoparticle is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. After heat treatment at 950 °C, the mixed rutile and anatase phase of TiO2 was revealed for the sample prepared with AA, whereas pure rutile phase was observed for the sample prepared in presence of OA, OM and the mixture of OA + OM. The energy band gap and transmittance of measured for titania nanoparticles was found to be systematically reduced with increase in annealing temperature for each surfactant. The ideality factor decreases with increase in annealing temperature for all surfactants could be related to the voltage dependence of the standard deviation of the distribution of barrier heights.
KeywordsTiO2 Surfactant Oleic Acid Rutile Photocatalytic Activity
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