Formation of Sn–Bi solder alloys by sequential electrodeposition and reflow

  • Yingxin Goh
  • Seen Fang Lee
  • A. S. Md. Abdul Haseeb


Eutectic Sn–Bi alloy is gaining considerable attention in the electronic packaging industry because of its favorable properties such as low melting temperature, good wettability, and good mechanical properties. Miniaturization of electronic devices requires small solder bumps, a few tens of micrometers in diameter. Electrodeposition is a reliable technique for the deposition of small volume of solder. This work focuses on the formation of eutectic Sn–Bi solder by reflowing a metal stack containing sequentially electrodeposited Sn and Bi layers. The effects of layering sequence on the composition and microstructure of the resulting alloy is investigated. Irrespective of the layering sequence, a homogeneous microstructure is achieved after reflow. The microstructure of the reflowed samples is the same as that of a metallurgically processed Sn–Bi alloy. Near-eutectic alloy with the composition Sn–54.6 wt% Bi is obtained by the sequential electrodeposition method.


Solder Joint Solder Alloy Solder Bump Methane Sulfonic Acid Cu6Sn5 Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This research is financially supported by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education under the University of Malaya High Impact Research Grant (HIRG) No. UM.C/HIR/MOHE/ENG/26 (D000026-16001) and the Exploratory Research Grant Scheme (ERGS) (Project No.: ER021/2011A).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yingxin Goh
    • 1
  • Seen Fang Lee
    • 1
  • A. S. Md. Abdul Haseeb
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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