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Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 1739–1749 | Cite as

Modifying the mechanical properties of lead-free solder by adding iron and indium and using a lap joint test

  • H. Fallahi
  • M. S. Nurulakmal
  • A. Fallahi
  • Jamaluddin Abdullah
Article

Abstract

Eliminating lead in electronics is an environmental consciousness that is taken prior to manufacturing. Lead-free solder has recently been developed to advance that goal. One of the most common types of lead-free solder is Sn–Ag–Cu(SAC). Adding alloying elements can modify the properties of SAC. The present study is devoted to the research and development of SAC for microelectronic packaging applications. The effects of iron and indium addition to SAC were investigated. Four different samples were fabricated by casting: Sn–3.6Ag–0.9Cu, Sn–3.6Ag–0.9Cu–0.2Fe, Sn–3.6Ag–0.9Cu–0.6Fe, and SAC-InCe. Reliability tests were done on Cu and Ni–P substrate. The shear strength of the joint was improved by decreasing the intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness; so the IMCs thickness must be controlled, because the formation of IMC leads to joint embrittlement at the interface. In conclusion, the addition of In and Fe can improve mechanical properties, such as shear strength, but the addition of In appears to be more effective for increasing the fracture toughness. The addition of Fe lowers the wetting angle and it can effectively improve the solder reliability, this improvement in shear behavior for the samples, which were reflowed on Cu substrate, is enhanced compared with the Ni substrate, but 0.6% Fe addition for the Cu substrate illustrates an decrease in fracture strain, because of abnormal growth of Cu6Sn5Whiskers in this case.

Keywords

Shear Strength Solder Alloy Fracture Strain Shear Behavior Reflow Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Fallahi
    • 1
  • M. S. Nurulakmal
    • 1
  • A. Fallahi
    • 2
  • Jamaluddin Abdullah
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Materials and Mineral Resources EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Amirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia

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