Synthesis and characterization of sol–gel derived (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Zr)O3 nanoparticles
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A citrate precursor method was employed to synthesize lead-free perovskite 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BZT-0.5BCT) crystallites. Powders and gels were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, thermal analysis and transmission electron microscopy. It was indicated that BZT-0.5BCT transparent gel can be obtained via the chelation of citric acid with metal ions. Gels transformed into crystalline powders with single-phase perovskite structure when heat-treated above 650 °C, significantly lower than that in a solid-state reaction method. The primary particle size of the powders increased from 30 to 60 nm as the decomposition temperature was raised from 600 to 750 °C.
KeywordsCalcination Temperature Perovskite Structure Citrate Precursor Method Faint Peak Citric Acid Aqueous Solution
This work was financially supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (50972035) and a Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, State Education Ministry (NCET-08-0766).
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