Effect of simultaneous double doping in Ba and Ti sites on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of sol–gel synthesized nano-BaTiO3
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Lead free (Ba(1−3x)Nd(2x))(Ti(1−y)Zry)O3 (x = 0, 0.025, y = 0, 0.025, 0.05) ceramics were prepared successfully using sol–gel method. The effect of Nd, Zr content on dielectric and polarisation properties of BaTiO3 were studied using dielectric and hysteresis measurements. SEM analysis proved that the particle size of compounds as prepared were in the order of 30–60 nm. The ferroelectric phase transition from tetragonal to cubic phase was observed around 130 °C for pure BaTiO3. With the addition of Nd (2.5 mol%) and increasing content of Zr (2.5 and 5 mol%), it was observed that transition temperature (Tc) shifts to lower temperatures (70–50 °C), but didn’t show any relaxor behaviour. Dielectric measurements showed an increase in the values at room temperature in all the doped samples. The synthesized ceramics exhibited typical P–E hysteresis loops at room temperature accompanied by saturation polarisation (Ps) and remanent polarisation (Pr). Behaviour of polarisation phenomena in these compounds showed interesting results with increasing temperature.
KeywordsDielectric Constant BaTiO3 Barium Titanate Tolerance Factor Diffuse Phase Transition
The authors are thankful to Dr. M.B.Suresh, Scientist, ARCI, Hyderabad for providing XRD and sintering facilities. The authors would like to thank Dr. P.Sarah for her support during the dielectric measurements. The authors thank the Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi for providing financial assistance under the sponsored project.
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