Dynamic strain aging behavior of accident tolerance fuel cladding FeCrAl-based alloy for advanced nuclear energy

Abstract

The Fe-13Cr-4Al alloy has become a promising candidate material for accident tolerance fuel (ATF) cladding of light-water reactors (LWRs) due to its excellent oxidation resistance to high-temperature water vapor. However, the tensile deformation behavior of the Fe-13Cr-4Al alloy under different strain rates at different temperatures is still unclear. In the present study, the tensile behavior and deformed microstructure of the Fe-13Cr-4Al alloy were investigated at strain rates from 5 × 10–4 to 1 × 10–2 s−1 in the temperature range from RT to 600 °C. Serrations were observed in the tensile engineering stress–strain curves of the intermediate temperature ranging from 300 to 450 °C at all the three strain rates, indicating the occurrence of dynamic strain aging (DSA). As the strain rate increased, the temperature range where serrated plastic flow occurred shifted to the high temperature regime. Serrated plastic flow occurred after a certain critical plastic strain, and the critical plastic strain decreased with the increase in temperature and increased with the increase in strain rate. In the DSA regime of the Fe-13Cr-4Al alloy, the plateau in the yield strength, ductility minima, negative strain rate sensitivity, the peaks of strain hardening exponent and work hardening rate were observed, which were the typical manifestations of the DSA. The activation energies of serrated plastic flow evaluated by three different methods were 157 ± 35, 92 ± 10 and 93 ± 10 kJ/mol, respectively. According to the values of activation energy, the controlling mechanism responsible for the DSA of the Fe-13Cr-4Al alloy was found to be the interaction between substitutional aluminum atoms and dislocations. The fracture surfaces of the specimens tested at 400 °C under three strain rates showed the mixed fracture mode, which contained dimples and cleavage facets. The tensile samples at 600 °C showed a completely ductile fracture mode with large and deep dimples. A large number of dislocation tangles in the microstructure of the specimens tested at 400 °C under all the strain rates were observed, with a large amount of Fe2Nb Laves particles along the grain boundaries and in the matrix. Dislocation pile-up was also observed around the grain boundaries and second-phase particles. With the increase in the strain rate, the number of subgrains increased, and a clear dislocation cell structure was also observed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17

References

  1. 1

    Liu WQ, Li QA, Zhou BX, Yan QS, Yao MY (2005) Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of a Zr-Sn-Nb-Fe-Cr alloy. J Nucl Mater 341(2–3):97–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2005.01.007

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Ott LJ, Robb KR, Wang D (2014) Preliminary assessment of accident-tolerant fuels on LWR performance during normal operation and under DB and BDB accident conditions. J Nucl Mater 448(1–3):520–533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.09.052

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Lim J, Hwang IS, Kim JH (2013) Design of alumina forming FeCrAl steels for lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. J Nucl Mater 441(1–3):650–660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2012.04.006

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Bachhav M, Odette GR, Marquis EA (2014) Microstructural changes in a neutron-irradiated Fe-15 at. %Cr alloy. J Nucl Mater 454(1–3):381–386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.08.026

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Huang XF, Wang H, Qiu SY, Zhang YY, He K, Wu BD (2020) Cold-rolling & annealing process for nuclear grade wrought FeCrAl cladding alloy to enhance the strength and ductility. J Mater Process Tech 277:116434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116434

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Cheng B, Kim YJ, Chou P (2016) Improving accident tolerance of nuclear fuel with coated Mo-alloy cladding. Nucl Eng Technol 48(1):16–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2015.12.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Park DJ, Kim HG, Park JY, Jung YI, Park JH, Koo YH (2015) A study of the oxidation of FeCrAl alloy in pressurized water and high-temperature steam environment. Corros Sci 94:459–465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2015.02.027

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Field KG, Gussev MN, Yamamoto Y, Snead LL (2014) Deformation behavior of laser welds in high temperature oxidation resistant Fe-Cr-Al alloys for fuel cladding applications. J Nucl Mater 454(1–3):352–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.08.013

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Gamble KA, Baranti T, Pizzocri D, Hales JD, Terrani KA, Pastore G (2017) An investigation of FeCrAl cladding behavior under normal operating and loss of coolant conditions. J Nucl Mater 491(1):55–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.04.039

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Pint BA, Terrani KA, Brady MP, Cheng T, Keiser JR (2013) High temperature oxidation of fuel cladding candidate materials in steam–hydrogen environments. J Nucl Mater 440(1):420–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.05.047

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Pan D, Zhang RQ, Wang H, Lu C, Liu YM (2016) Formation and stability of oxide layer in FeCrAl fuel cladding material under high-temperature steam. J Alloy Compd 684:549–555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.05.145

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Sun ZQ, Bei HB, Yamamoto Y (2017) Microstructural control of FeCrAl alloys using Mo and Nb additions. Mater Charact 132:126–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2017.08.008

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Zq SUN, Edmondson PD, Yamamoto Y (2018) Effects of Laves phase particles on recovery and recrystallization behaviors of Nb-containing FeCrAl alloys. Acta Mater 144:716–727. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-018-3665-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Ding RF, Wang H, Jiang YB et al (2019) Effects of ZrC addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Cr-Al alloys fabricated by spark plasma sintering. J Alloy Compd 805:1025–1033. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.07.181

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Yamamoto Y, Pint BA, Terrani KA, Field KG, Yang Y, Snead LL (2015) Development and property evaluation of nuclear grade wrought FeCrAl fuel cladding for light water reactors. J Nucl Mater 467:703–716. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.10.019

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Mesarovic SD (1995) Dynamic strain aging and plastic instabilities. J Mech Phys Solids 43(5):671–700. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5096(95)00010-G

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Vandenbeukel A (1975) Theory of effect of dynamic strain aging on mechanical-properties. Phys Status Solidi A 30(1):197–206. https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.2210300120

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Choudhary BK, Samuel EI, Sainath G, Christopher J, Mathew MD (2013) Influence of temperature and strain rate on tensile deformation and fracture behavior of P92 ferritic Steel. Metall Mater Trans A 44(11):4979–4992. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-013-1869-6

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Soares GC, Queiroz RRU, Santos LA (2020) Effects of dynamic strain aging on strain hardening behavior, dislocation substructure, and fracture morphology in a ferritic stainless steel. Metall Mater Trans A 51(2):725–739. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-019-05574-6

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Jacobs TR, Matlock DK, Findley KO (2019) Characterization of localized plastic deformation behaviors associated with dynamic strain aging in pipeline steels using digital image correlation. Int J Plasticity 123:70–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijplas.2019.07.010

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Venkadesan S, Phaniraj C, Sivaprasad PV, Rodriguez P (1992) Activation-energy for serrated flow in a 15Cr-15Ni Ti-modified austenitic stainless-steel. Acta Mater 40(3):569–580. https://doi.org/10.1016/0956-7151(92)90406-5

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Choudhary BK (2014) Activation energy for serrated flow in type 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel. Mat Sci Eng A 603:160–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2014.02.083

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Gupta C, Chakravartty JK, Wadekar SL, Dubey JS (2000) Effect of serrated flow on deformation behaviour of AISI 403 stainless steel. Mat Sci Eng A 292(1):49–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0921-5093(00)00992-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Roy AK, Kumar P, Maitra D (2009) Dynamic strain ageing of P91 grade steels of varied silicon content. Mat Sci Eng A 499(1–2):379–386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2008.08.027

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Han GM, Tian CG, Chu ZK, Cui CY, Hu ZQ, Sun XF (2015) Activation energy calculations for the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect in nimonic 263 superalloy. Metall Mater Trans A 46(10):4629–4635. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-015-3000-7

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Rao CV, Srinivas NCS, Sastry GVS, Singh V (2019) Dynamic strain aging, deformation and fracture behaviour of the nickel base superalloy Inconel 617. Mat Sci Eng A 742:44–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2018.10.123

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Field KG, Briggs SA, Sridharan K, Howard RH, Yamamoto Y (2017) Mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated model and commercial FeCrAl alloys. J Nucl Mater 489:118–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.03.038

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Guria A, Charit I (2017) Tensile properties of accident-tolerant aluminum-bearing ferritic steels. Ann Nucl Energy 100:82–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2016.09.018

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Deng ZQ, Liu JH, Yan BJ, He Y (2018) Monotonous deformation behavior of ferritic FeCrAl alloy in the dynamic strain aging regime. J Alloy Compd 749:664–771

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Tjong SC, Zhu SM (1997) Creep and low-cycle fatigue behavior of ferritic Fe-24Cr-4Al alloy in the dynamic strain aging regime: Effect of aluminum addition. Metall Mater Trans A 28(6):1347–1355. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-997-0271-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Field KG, Hu XX, Littrell KC, Yamamoto Y, Snead LL (2015) Radiation tolerance of neutron-irradiated model Fe-Cr-Al alloys. J Nucl Mater 465:746–755. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.06.023

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Edmondson PD, Briggs SA, Yamamoto Y, Howard RH, Sridharan K, Terrani KA, Field KG (2016) Irradiation-enhanced alpha ’ precipitation in model FeCrAl alloys. Scripta Mater 116:112–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2016.02.002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Ming KS, Li LL, Li ZM, Bi XF, Wang J (2019) Grain boundary decohesion by nanoclustering Ni and Cr separately in CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloys. Sci Adv 5(12):eaay0639. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay0639

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Alomari AS, Kumar N, Murty KL (2019) Serrated yielding in an advanced stainless steel Fe-25Ni-20Cr (wt%). Mat Sci Eng A 751:292–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.03.193

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Rodriguez P (1984) Serrated plastic flow. B Mater Sci 6(4):653–663. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02743993

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Cottrell AH (1953) A note on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect. Philos Mag 44(355):829–832. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786440808520347

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    Mccormick PG (1972) A model for Protevin-Le Chatelier effect in substitutional alloys. Acta Metar 20(3):351–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6160(72)90028-4

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    He Y, Liu JH, Qiu SG, Deng ZQ, Yang YD, McLean A (2018) Microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of as-cast FeCrAl alloys. Mat Sci Eng A 726:56–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2018.04.039

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    Deng ZQ, He Y, Liu JH, Yan BJ, Yang YD, McLean A (2019) Effect of cooling rate on AlN precipitation in FeCrAl stainless steel during solidification. Metals 9(10):1091. https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101091

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    Keller C, Margulies MM, Guillot I (2012) Experimental analysis of the dynamic strain ageing for a modified T91 martensitic steel. Mat Sci Eng A 536:273–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2011.12.031

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    Guria A, Charit I (2015) Observation of serrated flow in APMT (TM) steel. Mater Lett 160:55–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2015.07.072

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42

    Kabir SMH, Yeo TI (2014) Influence of temperature on a low-cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic stainless steel. J Mech Sci Technol 28(7):2595–2607. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-014-0616-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43

    Akbarpour MR, Ekrami A (2008) Effect of temperature on flow and work hardening behavior of high bainite dual phase (HBDP) steels. Mat Sci Eng A 475(1–2):293–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2007.04.099

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44

    Lo KH, Shek CH, Lai JKL (2009) Recent developments in stainless steels. Mat Sci Eng R 65(4–6):39–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2009.03.001

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45

    Gale WF, Totemeier TC (2004) Smithells Metals Reference Book, 8th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46

    Bowen AW, Leak GM (1970) Solute diffusion in alpha- and gamma-iron. Metall Mater Trans B 1(6):1695–1700. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02642019

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number: 51971207,11805293, 51801194, U1904194].

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hui Wang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Handling Editor: P. Nash.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, Y., Wang, H., An, X. et al. Dynamic strain aging behavior of accident tolerance fuel cladding FeCrAl-based alloy for advanced nuclear energy. J Mater Sci 56, 8815–8834 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-021-05820-6

Download citation