The effects of alkaline-earth oxides (SrO, CaO, MgO) on the densification and microwave properties of low-temperature fired BaO–Al2O3–SiO2 (BAS) glass–ceramic/Al2O3 composites have been investigated. By adding alkaline-earth oxides, the softening and crystallization behaviors of BAS-based glass–ceramics, which determine the densification of composites, are sequentially weakened in the order of BAS, SrO–BaO–Al2O3–SiO2 (SBAS), CaO–BaO–Al2O3–SiO2 (CBAS) and MgO–BaO–Al2O3–SiO2 (MBAS). It is also found in the above BAS-based glass–ceramics that the addition of alkaline-earth oxides plays a more profound role on crystallization behavior than on softening behavior, leading to the expansion of the interval between crystallization and softening temperatures (i.e., densification temperature range) to different degrees depending on the type of oxides added. As a result, the microstructures of oxides-modified glass–ceramic/Al2O3 composites (SBAS/Al2O3, CBAS/Al2O3, MBAS/Al2O3) are much denser than those of BAS/Al2O3. The properties of such composites are determined by the interplay among density of microstructure, amount and relative ratio of crystalline and residual glass phases related to the crystallization behavior and interfacial reaction. Detailed analyses suggest that CBAS/Al2O3 achieves optimal properties among all the four composites. Specifically, for CBAS/Al2O3 the dielectric constant, dielectric loss, bending strength and CTE value are 5.81 ± 0.12 (at ~ 10 GHz), (2.04 ± 0.12) × 10−3 (at ~ 10 GHz), 155 ± 7 MPa and 6.58 ± 0.11 ppm/°C, respectively. Our findings may provide a new avenue to design LTCC substrate materials as feasible candidates for microwave devices.
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This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51702363) and the Research Project of National University of Defence Technology (Grant No. ZK18-03-15).
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Mao, H., Chen, X., Wang, F. et al. Effects of alkaline earth oxides on the densification and microwave properties of low-temperature fired BaO–Al2O3–SiO2 glass–ceramic/Al2O3 composites. J Mater Sci 54, 12371–12380 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-019-03795-z