Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 17, pp 11357–11377 | Cite as

Interface formation and bonding mechanisms of hot-rolled stainless steel clad plate

  • B. X. LiuEmail author
  • Q. An
  • F. X. YinEmail author
  • S. Wang
  • C. X. Chen


Since the 1980s, vacuum hot rolling has been developed to fabricate the stainless steel clad plates by the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan. Herein, hot rolling is a widely used solid-state bonding process to join the carbon steel substrate and stainless steel cladding. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the vacuum hot rolling process and effective parameters on the interface characteristics and shear strength of stainless steel clad plate. The effects of surface preparation condition, atmosphere condition, vacuum degree, rolling temperature, rolling reduction ratio, interlayer, heat treatment on the microstructure, interface characteristics and mechanical properties of stainless steel clad plate have been analyzed in detail. It is shown that the interface transition zone is formed due to the carbon diffusion, and the strong interface bonding is attributed to the sufficient alloy elements diffusion of Fe, Cr and Ni. Moreover, the interface shear strength and toughness are also affected by interfacial precipitation phase and multiple oxides. Finally, the present work concluded the bonding mechanism of hot-rolled stainless steel clad based on the oxide film theory, diffusion theory, recrystallization theory and three stage theory.



This work is financially supported by the Hebei Province High Education Department High-level Talent Science and Technology Research Project No. GCC2014012, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant Nos. U1860114 and 51601055, the National Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province under Grant No. E201620218.


  1. 1.
    Smith L (2012) Engineering with clad steel. Nickel Institute Technical Series, Beijing, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu BX, Yin FX, Dai XL, He JN, Fang W, Chen CX, Dong YC (2017) The tensile behaviors and fracture characteristics of stainless steel clad plates with different interfacial status. Mater Sci Eng, A 679:172–182Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Song H, Shin H, Shin Y (2016) Heat treatment of clad steel plate for application of hull structure. Ocean Eng 122:278–287Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhu ZC, He Y, Zhang XJ, Liu HY, Li X (2016) Effect of interface oxides on shear properties of hot-rolled stainless steel clad plate. Mater Sci Eng, A 669:344–349Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fang J, Li YZ (2012) Process optimization for welding stainless steel clad material based on orthotropic bridge plates. Appl Mech Mater 178–181:2066–2069Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miki C, Homma K, Tominaga T (2002) High strength and high performance steels and their use in bridge structure. J Constr Steel Res 58:3–20Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Su H, Luo XB, Chai F, Shen JC, Sun XJ, Lu F (2015) Manufacturing technology and application trends of titanium clad steel plates. J Iron Steel Res Int 22:977–982Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ye Y, Zhang SJ, Han LH, Liu Y (2018) Square concrete-filled stainless steel/carbon steel bimetallic tubular stub columns under axial compression. J Constr Steel Res 146:49–62Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marques MJ, Ramasamy A, Batusta AC, Nobre JP, Loureiro A (2015) Effect of heat treatment on microstrucutre and residual stress fields of a weld multilayer austenitic steel clad. J Mater Process Technol 222:52–60Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang LJ, Pei Q, Zhang JX, Bi ZY, Li PC (2014) Study on the microstructure and mechanical properties of explosive welded 2205/x65 bimetallic sheet. Mater Des 64:462–476Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mendes R, Ribeiro JB, Loureiro A (2013) Effect of explosive characteristics on the explosive welding of stainless steel to carbon steel in cylindrical configuration. Mater Des 51:182–192Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Satya Prasad VV, Madhusudhan Reddy G (2012) Microstructure and mechanical properties of electroslag strip and explosively clad low alloy steel: stainless steel joints. Trans Indian Inst Met 65:135–143Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yazdani M, Toroghinejad MR, Hashemi SM (2016) Effects of heat treatment on interface microstructure and mechanical properties of explosively welded Ck60/St37 plates. J Mater Eng Perform 25:5330–5342Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Niederhauser S, Karlsson B (2003) Mechanical properties of laser cladded steel. Mater Sci Technol 19:1611–1616Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pongmorakot K, Nambu S, Koseki T (2018) Effects of compressive strain on the evolution of interfacial strength of steel/nickel solid-state bonding at low temperature. Sci Technol Weld Join 23:344–350Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pongmorakot K, Nambu S, Shibuta Y, Koseki T (2017) Investigation on the mechanism of steel/steel solid-state bonding at low temperatures. Sci Technol Weld Join 22:257–263Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xu W, Sun X (2016) Numerical investigation of electromagnetic pulse welded interfaces between dissimilar metals. Sci Technol Weld Join 21:592–599Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen KK, Zhang YS, Wang HZ (2017) Study of plastic deformation and interface friction process for ultrasonic welding. Sci Technol Weld Join 22:208–216Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tanaka T, Fukuchi Y (1983) Fatigue crack propagation behavior of two-layered low carbon steel-stainless steel composite plates. Bull JSME 26:1273–1280Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Honda K, Torii T (1981) Study on fatigue fracture of laminated inhomogeneous metals (in quenched clad plates of low carbon steel and middle carbon steel). Bull JSME 24:468–474Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang S, Liu BX, Chen CX, Feng JH, Yin FX (2018) Microstructure, mechanical properties and interface bonding mechanism of hot-rolled stainless steel clad plates at different rolling reduction ratios. J Alloy Compd 766:517–526Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xie GM, Luo ZG, Wang GL, Li L, Wang GD (2011) Interface characteristic and properties of stainless steel/HSLA steel clad plate by vacuum rolling cladding. Mater Trans 52:1709–1712Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li L, Yin FX, Nagai K (2011) Progress of laminated materials and clad steels production. Mater Sci Forum 675–677:439–447Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tachibana S, Koronuma Y, Yokota T, Yamada K, Moriya Y, Kami C (2015) Effect of hot rolling and cooling conditions on intergranular corrosion behavior in alloy625 clad steel. Corros Sci 99:125–133Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li L, Nagai K, Yin FX (2008) Progress in cold roll bonding of metals. Sci Technol Adv Mater 9:1–11Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen CX, Liu MY, Liu BX, Yin FX, Dong YC, Zhang X, Zhang FY, Zhang YG (2017) Tensile shear sample design and interfacial shear strength of stainless steel clad plate. Fusion Eng Des 125:431–441Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bouaziz O, Masse JP, Petitgand G, Huang MX (2016) A novel strong and ductile TWIP/Martensite steel composite. Adv Eng Mater 18:56–59Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jiang WC, Xu XP, Gong JM, Tu ST (2012) Influence of repair length on residual stress in the repair weld of a clad plate. Nucl Eng Des 246:211–219Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jiang F, Deng ZL, Zhao K, Sun J (2003) Fatigue crack propagation normal to a plasticity mismatched biomaterial interface. Mater Sci Eng, A 356:258–266Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nambu S, Michiuchi M, Inoue J, Koseki T (2009) Effect of interfacial bonding strength on the tensile ductility of multilayered steel composites. Compos Sci Technol 69:1936–1941Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Missori S, Murdolo F, Sili A (2004) Single-pass laser beam welding of clad steel plate. Weld J 83:65–71Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dhib Z, Guermazi N, Gasperini M, Haddar N (2016) Cladding of low-carbon steel to austenitic stainless steel by hot-roll bonding: microstructure and mechanical properties before and after welding. Mater Sci Eng, A 656:130–141Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rees DWA, Power RK (1994) Forming limits in a clad steel. J Mater Process Technol 45:571–575Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Li HB, Chen J, Yang J (2013) Experiment and numerical simulation on delamination during the laminated steel sheet forming processes. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68:641–649Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dhib Z, Guermazi N, Ktari A, Gasperini M, Haddar N (2017) Mechanical bonding properties and interfacial morphologies of austenitic stainless steel clad plates. Mater Sci Eng, A 696:374–386Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Atrian A, Fereshteh-Saniee F (2013) Deep drawing process of steel/brass laminated sheets. Compos Part B 47:75–81Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu BX, Huang LJ, Geng L, Wang B, Cui XP, Liu C, Wang GS (2013) Microstructure and tensile behavior of novel laminated Ti–TiBw/Ti composites by reaction hot pressing. Mater Sci Eng, A 583:182–187Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu BX, Huang LJ, Kaveendran B, Geng L, Cui XP, Wei SL, Yin FX (2017) Tensile and bending behaviors and characteristics of laminated Ti–(TiBw/Ti) composites with different interface status. Compos B 108:377–385Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu BX, Huang LJ, Geng L, Wang B, Liu C, Zhang WC (2014) Fabrication and superior of laminated Ti–TiBw/Ti composites by diffusion welding. J Alloy Compd 602:187–192Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kum DW, Oyama T, Wadsworth J, Sherby OD (1983) The impact properties of laminated composites containing ultrahigh carbon (UHC) steels. J Mech Phys Solids 31:173–186Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Liu BX, Huang LJ, Rong XD, Geng L, Yin FX (2016) Bending behaviors and fracture characteristics of laminated ductile-tough composites under different modes. Compos Sci Technol 126:94–105Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cepeda-Jiménez CM, Lutfullin RY, Ruano OA (2013) Effect of processing temperature on the texture and shear mechanical properties of diffusion bonded Ti–6Al–4V multilayer laminates. Metall Mater Trans A 44:4743–4753Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liu BX, Wang S, Ma JL, Yin FX, Feng JH, Chen CX (2018) Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled stainless steel clad plates by heat treatment. Mater Chem Phys 216:460–467Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jing Y, Qin Y, Zang XM, Shang QY, Song H (2014) A novel reduction-bonding process to fabricate stainless steel clad plate. J Alloy Compd 617:688–698Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jing Y, Qin Y, Zang XM, Li YH (2014) The bonding properties and interfacial morphologies of clad plate prepared by multiple passes hot rolling in a protective atmosphere. J Mater Process Technol 214:1686–1695Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Madaah-Hosseini HR, Kokabi AH (2002) Cold roll bonding of 5754-aluminum strips. Mater Sci Eng, A 335:186–190Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Li L, Zhang XJ, Zhu ZC, Liu HY (2014) Investigation on bonding of stainless steel clad plate by vacuum hot rolling. J Mater Metall 13:46–50 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mehr VY, Toroghinejad MR, Rezaeian A (2014) The effects of oxide film and annealing treatment on the bond strength of Al–Cu strips in cold roll bonding process. Mater Des 53:174–181Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhang XJ, Li L, Liu HY, Yin FX (2013) Application of insert layer in manufacturing clad metal plates. Steel Roll 30:45–49 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jamaati R, Toroghinejad MR (2011) The role of surface preparation parameters on cold roll bonding of aluminum strips. J Mater Eng Perform 20:192–197Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wu HY, Lee S, Wang JY (1998) Solid-state bonding of iron-based alloys, steel–brass, and aluminum alloys. J Mater Process Technol 75:173–179Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jamaati R, Toroghinejad MR (2011) Cold roll bonding bond strengths: review. Mater Sci Technol 27:1101–1108Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wu ZJ, Peng WF, Shu XD (2017) Influence of rolling temperature on interface properties of the cross wedge rolling of 42CrMo/Q235 laminated shaft. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91:517–526Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Li L, Zhang XJ, Liu HY, Yin FX (2013) Formation mechanism of oxide inclusion on the interface of hot-rolled stainless steel clad plates. J Iron Steel Res 25:43–47 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Masahiro N, Ikuro H, Shinji K (2006) Effects of surface oxides on the phospatability of the high strength cold rolled steel. Tetsu Hagane 92:378–384 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wang GL (2013) Research on interface inclusions’ evolution mechanism and process control of vacuum hot roll-cladding. Doctor thesis of Northeastern University, 1–162. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Liu BX, Wang S, Chen CX, Fang W, Yin FX (2019) Interface characteristics and fracture behavior of hot rolled stainless steel clad plates with different vacuum degrees. Appl Surf Sci 463:121–131Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Qin Q, Wu ZH, Zang Y, Guan B, Zhang FX (2016) Warping deformation of 316l/Q345r stainless composite plate after removal strake. World J Eng 13:206–209Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Qin Q, Zhang DT, Zang Y, Guan B (2015) A simulation study on the multi-pass rolling bond of 316L/Q345R stainless clad plate. Adv Mech Eng 7:1–13Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tong JG, Chen R, Bao WP, Yan K, Ren XP (2009) Composite rolling of three-layer iron-based metals of 25CrMoA steel/micro-alloyed steel/A235 steel. J Univ Sci Technol Beijing 31:186–192 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jin JB (2013) Research of cladding rate and shear strength for hot rolled stainless steel clad plate. Wide Heavy Plate 19:12–15 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kolarik L, Janovec J, Kolarikova M, Nachtnebl P (2015) Influence of diffusion welding time on homogenous steel joints. Proc Eng 100:1678–1685Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    He JY, Ma Y, Yan DS, Jiao SH, Yuan FP, Wu XL (2018) Improving ductility by increasing fraction of interfacial zone in low C steel/304SS laminates. Mater Sci Eng, A 726:288–297Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zhang LJ, He Y, Liu HY, Zhang XJ, Liu BL (2016) Effect of induction heating on carbon steel layer in stainless steel clad plates. CFHI Technol 171:52–56 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Li L, Zhu ZC, Zhang XJ, Liu HY (2015) Experimental study on hot rolled stainless steel clad plate produced by TMCP. J Mater Eng 43:62–67 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Motarjemi AK, Kocak M, Ventzke V (2002) Mechanical and fracture characterization of a bi-material steel plate. Int J Press Vessel Pip 79:181–191Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hedayati O, Korei N, Adeli M, Etminanbakhsh M (2017) Microstructural evolution and interfacial diffusion during heat treatment of hastelloy/stainless steel bimetals. J Alloy Compd 712:172–178Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rajeev R, Samajdar I, Raman R, Harendranath CS, Kale GB (2001) Origin of hard and soft zone formation during cladding of austenitic/duplex stainless steel on plain carbon steel. Mater Sci Technol 17:1005–1010Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ayer R, Mueller RR, Leta DP, Sisak WJ (1989) Phase transformations at steel/in625 clad interfaces. Metall Trans A 20:665–681Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pavlovsky J, Million B, Ciha K, Stransky K (1991) Carbon redistribution between an austenitic cladding and a ferritic steel for pressure vessels of nuclear reactor. Mater Sci Eng, A 149:105–110Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mas F, Tassin C, Valle N, Robaut F, Charlot F, Yescas M, Roch F, Todeschini P, Brechet Y (2016) Metallurgical characterization of coupled carbon diffusion and precipitation in dissimilar steel welds. J Mater Sci 51:4846–4879. Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Li L, Zhang XJ, Liu G, Fu HY, Li MN (2015) Effect of Ni layer thickness on bonding strength of hot rolled clad steel plate. Trans Mater Heat Treat 36:80–85Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Luo ZA, Wang GL, Xie GM (2013) Interfacial microstructure and properties of a vacuum hot roll bonded titanium stainless steel clad plate with a niobium interlayer. Acta Metall Sin 26:754–760Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pozuelo M, Carreno F, Carsi M, Ruano OA (2007) Influence of interfaces on the mechanical properties of ultrahigh carbon steel multilayer laminates. Int J Mat Res 98:47–52Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Syn CK, Lesuer DR, Wolfenstine J, Sherby OD (1993) Layer thickness effect on ductile tensile fracture of ultrahigh carbon steel–brass laminates. Metall Trans A 24:1647–1653Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Liang F, Tan HF, Zhang B, Zhang GP (2017) Maximizing necking-delayed fracture of sandwich-structured Ni/Cu/Ni composites. Scr Mater 134:28–32Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Liu HS, Zhang B, Zhang GP (2011) Delaying premature local necking of high strength Cu: a potential way to enhance plasticity. Scr Mater 64:13–16Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tan HF, Zhang B, Kang YK, Zhu XF, Zhang GP (2016) Fracture behavior of sandwich-structured metal/amorphous alloy/metal composites. Mater Des 90:60–65Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Park J, Kim JS, Kang MJ, Sohn SS, Cho WT, Kim HS, Lee S (2017) Tensile property improvement of TWIP-cored three layer steel sheets fabricated by hot roll bonding with low carbon steel or interstitial free steel. Sci Rep 7:40231Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Serror MH (2013) Analytical study for deformability of laminated sheet metal. J Adv Res 4:83–92Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Guo X, Weng GJ, Soh AK (2012) Ductility enhancement of layered stainless steel with nanograined interface layers. Comput Mater Sci 55:350–355Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pommier H, Busso EP, Morgeneyer TF, Pineau A (2016) Intergranular damage during stress relaxation in AISI 316L-type austenitic stainless steels: effect of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Acta Mater 103:893–908Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jones R, Randle V, Owen G (2008) Carbide precipitation and grain boundary plane selection in overaged type 316 austenitic stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng, A 496:256–261Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sun GS, Du LX, Hu J, Xie H, Wu HY, Misra RDK (2015) Ultrahigh strength nano/ultrafine-grained 304 stainless steel through three-stage cold rolling and annealing treatment. Mater Charact 110:228–235Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Avramovic-Cingara G, Ososkov Y, Jain MK, Wilkinson DS (2009) Effect of martensite distribution on damage behavior in DP600 dual phase steels. Mater Sci Eng, A 516:7–16Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Eskandari M, Kermanpur A, Najafizadeh A (2009) Formation of nanocrystalline structure in 301 stainless steel produced by martensite treatment. Metall Mater Trans A 40:2241–2249Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Eskandari M, Kermanpur A, Najafizadeh A (2009) Formation of nano-grained structure in a 301 stainless steel using a repetitive thermo-mechanical treatment. Mater Lett 63:1442–1444Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bowden EP, Tabor D (1939) The area of contact between stationary and between moving surfaces. Proc R Soc Lond A 169:391–413Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Burton MS (1954) Metallurgical principles of metal bonding. Weld J 33:1051–1057Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cave JA, Williams JD (1973) The mechanism of cold pressure welding by rolling. J Inst Met 101:203–207Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Derby B, Wallach ER (1984) Diffusion bonding: development of theoretical model. Mater Sci 18:427–431Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mitani Y, Vargas R, Zavala M (1984) Deformation and diffusion bonding of aluminide-coated steels. Thin Solid Films 111:37–42Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Brown DW, Okuniewski MA, Sisneros TA, Clausen B, Moore GA, Balogh L (2016) Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses, dislocation density and texture in Zr-bonded U-10Mo “mini” fuel foils and plates. J Nucl Mater 482:63–74Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Pan D, Gao K, Yu J (1989) Cold roll bonding of bimetallic sheets and strips. Mater Sci Technol 5:934–939Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shirzadi AA, Assadi H, Wallach ER (2001) Interface evolution and bond strength when diffusion bonding materials with stable oxide films. Surf Interface Anal 31:609–618Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Parks JM (1953) Recrystallization in welding. Weld J Suppl 32:209–222Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Barabash RI, Barabash OM, Ojima M, Yu ZZ, Inoue J, Nambu S, Koseki T, Xu RQ, Feng ZL (2014) Interphase strain gradients in multilayered steel composite from microdiffraction. Metall Mater Trans A 45:98–108Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Min XH, Emura S, Meng FQ, Mi GB, Tsuchiya K (2015) Mechanical twinning and dislocation slip multilayered deformation microstructures in β-type Ti–Mo base alloy. Scr Mater 102:79–82Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bay N (1979) Cold pressure welding-the mechanisms governing bonding. J Eng Ind 101:122–127Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bay N (1983) Mechanisms producing metallic bonds in cold welding. Weld Res Suppl 5:137–142Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zhang W, Bay N (1997) Cold welding-theoretical modeling of the weld formation. Weld Res Suppl 10:417–430Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bay N, Bjerregaard H, Petersen SB (1994) Cross shear roll bonding. J Mater Process Technol 45:1–6Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tylecote RF, Howd D, Furmidage JR (1958) The influence of surface films on the pressure welding of metals. Br Weld J 5:21–38Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Milner DR, Rowe GW (1962) Fundamentals of solid-phase welding. Metall Rev 7:433–480Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zhang W, Bay N (1997) A numerical model for cold welding of metals. CIRP Ann 46:195–200Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wang GL, Zuo ZA, Xie GM (2011) Experiment research on impact of total rolling reduction ratio on the properties of vacuum rolling bonding ultra-thick steel plate. Adv Mater Res 299–300:962–965Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Suehiro M, Hashimoto Y (1989) Carbon distribution near interface between base and cladding steels in austenite stainless clad steel sheet. Tetsu Hagane 75:1501–1507Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kurt B, Calik A (2009) Interface structure of diffusion bonded duplex stainless steel and medium carbon steel couple. Mater Charact 60:1035–1040Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Huang ML, Wang L (1998) Carbon migration in 5Cr–0.5Mo/21Cr–12Ni dissimilar metal clad. Metall Mater Trans A 29:3037–3046Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sawanishi C, Ogura T, Sumi H, Oi K, Yasuda K, Hirose A (2012) Interfacial microstructure observation and nanoindentation measurements in mild steel/HT780 clad plate. Mater Sci Technol 28:1459–1464Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gomez X, Echeberria J (2000) Microstructure and mechanical properties of low alloy steel T11-austenitic steel 347H bimetallic tubes. Mater Sci Technol 16:187–193Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Liu BX, Wang S, Fang W, Yin FX, Chen CX (2019) Meso and microscale clad interface characteristics of hot-rolled stainless steel clad plate. Mater Charact 148:17–25Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Qin YF, He JN, Yin FX, Liu BX, Zhang FY (2017) Effect of Ti particle size on mechanical and tribological properties of TiCN coatings prepared by reactive plasma spraying. Ceram Int 43:16548–16554Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Qin YF, He JN, Yin FX, Zhang FY, Liu BX (2017) Influence of initial Ti particle size on microstructure and fracture toughness of reactive plasma sprayed TiCN coatings. Surf Coat Technol 325:482–489Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Zhang FY, Li C, Yan MF, He JN, Yang YG, Yin FX (2017) Microstructure and nanomechanical properties of co-deposited Ti–Cr films prepared by magnetron sputtering. Surf Coat Technol 325:636–642Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Jamaati R, Toroghinejad MR, Amirkhanlou S, Edris H (2015) Strengthening mechanisms in nanostructured interstitial free steel deformed to high strain. Mater Sci Eng, A 639:656–662Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jamaati R, Toroghinejad MR, Amirkhanlou S, Edris H (2015) Microstructural evolution of nanostructured steel-based composite fabricated by accumulative roll bonding. Mater Sci Eng, A 639:298–306Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jamaati R, Toroghinejad MR, Edris H, Salmani MR (2014) Fracture of steel nanocomposite made using accumulative roll bonding. Mater Sci Technol 30:1973–1982Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Moradgholi J, Monshi A, Farmanesh K, Toroghinejad MR, Loghman-Estarki MR (2017) Comparison of microstructure, toughness, mechanical properties and work hardening of titanium/TiO2 and titanium/SiC composites manufactured by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process. Ceram Int 43:7701–7709Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Takeuchi T, Kakubo Y, Matsukawa Y, Nozawa Y, Toyama T, Nagai Y, Nishiyama Y, Katsuyama J, Yamaguchi Y, Onizawa K, Suzuki M (2014) Effect of thermal aging on microstructure and hardness of stainless steel weld-overlay claddings of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. J Nucl Mater 452:235–240Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rashid RA, Abaspour S, Palanisamy S, Matthews N, Dargusch MS (2017) Metallurgical and geometrical characterization of the 316L stainless steel clad deposited on a mild steel substrate. Surf Coat Technol 327:174–184Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Rao NV, Sarma DS, Nagarjuna S, Reddy GM (2009) Influence of hot rolling and heat treatment on structure and properties of HSLA steel explosively clad with austenitic steel. Mater Sci Technol 25:1387–1396Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Liu BX, Huang LJ, Geng L, Wang B, Cui XP (2014) Fracture behaviors and microstructural failure mechanisms of laminated Ti–TiBw/Ti composites. Mater Sci Eng, A 611:290–297Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Guo YJ, Qiao GJ, Jian WZ, Zhi XH (2010) Microstructure and tensile behavior of Cu–Al multilayered composites prepared by plasma activated sintering. Mater Sci Eng, A 527:5234–5240Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Li T, Suo Z (2006) Deformability of thin metal films on elastomer substrates. Int J Solids Struct 43:2351–2363Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Li T, Suo Z (2007) Ductility of thin metal films on polymer substrates modulated by interfacial adhesion. Int J Solids Struct 44:1696–1705Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hsia KJ, Suo Z, Yang W (1994) Cleavage due to dislocation confinement in layered materials. J Mech Phys Solids 42:877–896Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Koseki T, Inoue J, Nambu S (2014) Development of multilayer steels for improved combinations of high strength and high ductility. Mater Trans 55:227–237Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Inoue J, Nambu S, Ishimoto Y, Koseki T (2008) Fracture elongation of brittle/ductile multilayered steel composites with a strong interface. Scr Mater 59:1055–1058Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hwu KL, Derby B (1999) Fracture of metal/ceramic laminates-I. transition from single to multiple cracking. Acta Mater 47:529–543Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Seok MY, Lee JA, Lee DH, Ramamurty U, Nambu S, Koseki T, Jang J (2016) Decoupling the contributions of constituent layers to the strength and ductility of a multilayered steel. Acta Mater 121:164–172Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lesuer DR, Syn CK, Sherby OD, Wadsworth J, Lewandowski JJ, Hunt WH (1996) Mechanical behavior of laminated metal composites. Int Mater Rev 41:169–197Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Snyder BC, Wadsworth J, Sherby OD (1984) Superplastic behavior in ferrous laminated composites. Acta Mater 32:919–932Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Cohades A, Mortensen A (2014) Tensile elongation of unidirectional or laminated composites combining a brittle reinforcement with a ductile strain and strain-rate hardening matrix. Acta Mater 71:31–43Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Cao WQ, Zhang MD, Huang CX, Xiao SY, Dong H, Weng YQ (2016) Ultrahigh charpy impact toughness (~ 450 J) achieved in high strength ferrite/martensite laminated steels. Sci Rep 7:41459Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Pozuelo M, Carreno F, Ruano OA (2006) Delamination effect on the impact toughness of an ultrahigh carbon-mild steel laminate composite. Compos Sci Technol 66:2671–2676Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kimura Y, Inoue T, Yin FX, Tsuzaki K (2008) Inverse temperature dependence of toughness in an ultrafine grain-structure steel. Science 320:1057–1060Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Huang LJ, Geng L, Peng HX (2015) Microstructurally inhomogeneous composites: is a homogeneous reinforcement distribution optimal? Prog Mater Sci 71:93–168Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Song F, Bai YL (2003) Effects of nanostructures on the fracture strength of the interfaces in nacre. J Mater Res 18:1741–1744Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Price RD, Jiang FC, Kulin RM, Vecchio KS (2011) Effects of ductile phase volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Ti–TiAl3 metal-intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites. Mater Sci Eng, A 528:3134–3146Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Jackson AP, Vincent JF (1989) A physical model of nacre. Compos Sci Technol 36:255–266Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Koyama M, Zhang Z, Wang MM, Ponge D, Raabe D, Tsuzaki K, Noguchi H, Tasan CC (2017) Bone-like crack resistance in hierarchical metastable nanolaminate steel. Science 355:1055–1057Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute for Energy Equipment Materials, TianJin Key Laboratory of Materials Laminating Fabrication and Interfacial Controlling Technology, School of Materials Science and EngineeringHebei University of TechnologyTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations