Controllable growth of vertical ReS2 nanosheets and nanorods by vapor transport method


As an emerging two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, rhenium disulfide (ReS2) has been attracting more and more attention for its unique properties and great potential in the design of the electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, for the first time, large-size ReS2 nanosheets with area of over 35 μm × 20 μm were successfully synthesized via vapor transport (VT) method. Moreover, the growth of ReS2 nanosheets via VT method was demonstrated to be effective on Si, SiO2, and Au substrate, which would further expand the application of ReS2 during the design of devices on different substrates. Besides, the effect of Ar gas flow on the growth of ReS2 nanosheets was systematically investigated. Furthermore, it is the first time the 1D ReS2 nanorods have been synthesized using the VT method. Based on the experiment results, the growth mechanism of ReS2 nanosheets and nanorods was proposed. It is believed that the research may pave a way for the growth of large-size ReS2 nanosheets and the wider application of ReS2 nanostructures.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6


  1. 1

    Wang QH, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kis A, Coleman JN, Strano MS (2012) Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat Nanotechnol 7:699–712

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Chhowalla M, Shin HS, Eda G, Li LJ, Loh KP, Zhang H (2013) The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets. Nat Chem 5:263–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Butler SZ, Hollen SM, Cao L et al (2013) Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. ACS Nano 7:2898–2926

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Ferrari AC, Bonaccorso F, Fal’ko V et al (2015) Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems. Nanoscale 7:4598–4810

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Mak KF, Shan J (2016) Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat Photonics 10:216–226

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    He R, Yan JA, Yin ZY et al (2016) Coupling and stacking order of ReS2 atomic layers revealed by ultralow-frequency Raman spectroscopy. Nano Lett 16:1404–1409

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Tongay S, Sahin H, Ko C et al (2014) Monolayer behaviour in bulk ReS2 due to electronic and vibrational decoupling. Nat Commun 5:3252

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Pradhan NR, McCreary A, Rhodes D et al (2015) Metal to insulator quantum-phase transition in few-layered ReS2. Nano Lett 15:8377–8384

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Liu FC, Zheng SJ, He XX et al (2016) Highly sensitive detection of polarized light using anisotropic 2D ReS2. Adv Funct Mater 26:1169–1177

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Chenet DA, Aslan OB, Huang PY et al (2015) In-plane anisotropy in mono- and few-layer ReS2 probed by Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Nano Lett 15:5667–5672

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Feng YQ, Zhou W, Wang YJ et al (2015) Raman vibrational spectra of bulk to monolayer ReS2 with lower symmetry. Phys Rev B 92:2095–2099

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Lin YC, Komsa HP, Yeh CH et al (2015) Single-layer ReS2: two-dimensional semiconductor with tunable in-plane anisotropy. ACS Nano 9:11249–11257

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Lorchat E, Froehlicher G, Berciaud S (2016) Splitting of interlayer shear modes and photon energy dependent anisotropic Raman response in N-layer ReSe2 and ReS2. ACS Nano 10:2752–2760

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Zhang Q, Wang WJ, Zhang JQ et al (2018) Highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by ReS2 via a two-electron catalytic reaction. Adv Mater 30:1707123

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Fujita T, Ito Y, Tan YW, Yamaguchi H et al (2014) Chemically exfoliated ReS2 nanosheets. Nanoscale 6:12458–12462

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Liu EF, Long MS, Zeng JW et al (2016) High responsivity phototransistors based on few-layer ReS2 for weak signal detection. Adv Funct Mater 26:1938–1944

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Keyshar K, Gong YJ, Ye GL et al (2015) Chemical vapor deposition of monolayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2). Adv Mater 27:4640–4648

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Hafeez M, Gan L, Li HQ, Ma Y, Zhai TY (2016) Large area bilayer ReS2 film/multilayer ReS2 flakes synthesized by chemical vapor deposition for high performance photodetectors. Adv Funct Mater 26:4551–4560

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Li XB, Cui FF, Feng QL et al (2016) Controlled growth of large-area anisotropic ReS2 atomic layer and its photodetector application. Nanoscale 8:18956–18962

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    He XX, Liu FC, Hu P et al (2015) Chemical vapor deposition of high-quality and atomically layered ReS2. Small 11:5423–5429

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Al-Dulaimi N, Lewis EA, Lewis DJ et al (2016) Sequential. bottom-up and top-down processing for the synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets: the case of rhenium disulfide (ReS2). Chem Commun 52:7878–7881

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Cui FF, Wang C, Li XB et al (2016) Tellurium-assisted epitaxial growth of large-area, highly crystalline ReS2 atomic layers on mica substrate. Adv Mater 28:5019–5024

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Wagner CD, Muilenberg GE (1979) Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Perkin-Elmer Corp, Eden Prairie

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Jariwala B, Voiry D, Jindal A et al (2016) Synthesis and characterization of ReS2 and ReSe2 layered chalcogenide single crystals. Chem Mater 28:3352–3359

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Manzoor U, Kim DK (2009) Size control of ZnO nanostructures formed in different temperature zones by varying Ar flow rate with tunable optical properties. Phys E 41:500–505

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Ye CH, Fang XS, Hao YF, Teng XM, Zhang LD (2005) Zinc oxide nanostructures: morphology derivation and evolution. J Phys Chem B 109:19758–19765

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Kumar P, Viswanath B (2017) Horizontally and vertically aligned growth of strained MoS2 layers with dissimilar wetting and catalytic behaviors. CrystEngComm 19:5068–5078

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Park JH, Choi HJ, Choi YJ, Sohn SH, Park JG (2004) Ultrawide ZnO nanosheets. J Mater Chem 14:35–36

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant (No. U1631110).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xianquan Meng.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

This contribution has been approved by all coauthors, it has not been published before, it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else, and there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1063 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, Y., An, Q. & Meng, X. Controllable growth of vertical ReS2 nanosheets and nanorods by vapor transport method. J Mater Sci 54, 6807–6814 (2019).

Download citation