Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 16, pp 11765–11778 | Cite as

Effects of step-quenching on the α″ martensitic transformation, α precipitation, and mechanical properties of multiphase Ti–10Mo alloy

  • C. H. Wang
  • H. Jiang
  • G. H. Cao


The effects of step-quenching on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a binary Ti–10Mo (wt%) alloy were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The step-quenching treatment, consisting of solution treatment in the β phase field at 850 °C followed by step-quenching to the α/β two-phase region at 650 °C and holding for 0.5 h, was employed before water-quenching the alloy to room temperature. Direct quenching from 850 °C to room temperature with or without an aging step at 650 °C was also conducted for comparison. Microstructural observation revealed that step-quenching favored the formation of α precipitates thinner than 20 nm in the absence of α″ or ω heterogeneous nucleation agents and effectively moderated the subsequent α″ martensitic transformation by increasing the stability of the β phase. Step-quenching generated a multiphase microstructure comprising α″, β, ω, and α phases by balancing the competitive martensitic α″ and diffusional α transformations. Only α″ martensite was formed in the β matrix after direct water-quenching; the mixture of α″ + β phases was transformed to a lamellar α + β microstructure with 5 min aging. The kinetics of α precipitation was calculated to illustrate the temperature dependence of α precipitation behavior during step-quenching. Direct water-quenching produced a tensile strength of 688 MPa and 36% ductility. After aging, the tensile strength was increased to 837–867 MPa, while the ductility was decreased to 5%. By step-quenching, the high tensile strength of 790 MPa and ductility of 23% were achieved.



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant No. 51271107 and the Shanghai Committee of Science and Technology, China, under Grant No. 16520721700. Support by the Instrumental Analysis and Research Center of Shanghai University is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Niinomi M, Nakai M, Hieda J (2012) Development of new metallic alloys for biomedical applications. Acta Biomater 8:3888–3903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miyazaki S, Kim HY, Hosoda H (2006) Development and characterization of Ni-free Ti-base shape memory and superelastic alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 438–440:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cotton JD, Briggs RD, Boyer RR, Tamirisakandala S, Russo P, Shchetnikov N, Fanning JC (2015) State of the art in beta titanium alloys for airframe applications. JOM 67:1281–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lütjering G (1998) Influence of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of (α + β) titanium alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 243:32–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Furuhara T, Maki T, Makino T (2001) Microstructure control by thermomechanical processing in β-Ti-15-3 alloy. J Mater Process Technol 117:318–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li T, Kent D, Sha G, Dargusch MS, Cairne JM (2015) The mechanism of ω-assisted α phase formation in near β-Ti alloys. Scr Mater 104:75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prima F, Vermaut P, Texier G, Ansel D, Gloriant T (2006) Evidence of α-nanophase heterogeneous nucleation from ω particles in a β-metastable Ti-based alloy by high-resolution electron microscopy. Scr Mater 54:645–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liang SX, Yin LX, Zheng LY, Ma MZ, Liu RP (2015) Preparation of low cost TiZrAlFe alloy with ultra-high strength and favorable ductility. Mater Sci Eng A 639:699–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen YC, Chern Lin JH, Ju CP (2014) Effects of post-aging cooling condition on structure and tensile properties of aged Ti–7.5Mo alloy. Mater Des 545:15–519Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tang X, Ahmed T, Rack HJ (2000) Phase transformations in Ti–Nb–Ta and Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr alloys. J Mater Sci 35:1805–1811. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tomio Y, Furuhara T, Maki T (2009) Effect of cooling rate on superelasticity and microstructure evolution in Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al and Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al–0.2N alloys. Mater Trans 50:2731–2736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ingelbrecht CD (1985) The effect of step-quenching on the tensile properties and microstructure of the titanium alloy Ti–4Al–4Mo–2Sn–0.5Si (IMI 550). J Mater Sci 20:3034–3040. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Salvador CAF, Opini VC, Lopes ESN, Caram R (2017) Microstructure evolution of Ti–30Nb–(4Sn) alloys during classical and step-quench aging heat treatments. Mater Sci Technol 33:400–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nag S, Zheng Y, Williams REA, Devaraj A, Boyne A, Wang Y, Collins PC, Viswanathan GB, Tiley JS, Muddle BC, Banerjee R, Fraser HL (2012) Non-classical homogeneous precipitation mediated by compositional fluctuations in titanium alloys. Acta Mater 60:6247–6256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kobayashi S, Takeichi T, Nakai T, Sakamoto T (2014) Acceleration or suppression of α-phase precipitation using isothermal ω phase in Ti–20 at.pct Nb alloy. Metall Mater Trans A 45:1217–1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cardoso F, Ferrandini P, Lopes EN, Cremascoa A, Caram R (2014) Ti–Mo alloys employed as biomaterials: effects of composition and aging heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical behavior. J Mech Biomed Mater 32:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang CH, Liu M, Hu PF, Peng JC, Wang JA, Ren ZM, Cao GH (2017) The effects of α″ and ω phases on the superelasticity and shape memory effect of binary Ti–Mo alloys. J Alloys Compd 720:488–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Murray JL (1987) Phase diagrams of binary titanium alloys. ASM International, Metals ParkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moffat DL, Larbalestier DC (1988) The competition between martensite and omega in quenched Ti-Nb alloys. Metall Trans A 19:1677–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Davis R, Flower HM, West DRF (1979) Martensitic transformations in Ti-Mo alloys. J Mater Sci 14:712–722. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tang B, Cui YW, Kou H, Chang H, Li J, Zhou L (2012) Phase field modeling of isothermal β → ω phase transformation in the Zr–Nb alloys. Comput Mater Sci 61:76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zheng Y, Williams REA, Sosa JM, Wang Y, Banerjee R, Fraser HL (2016) The role of the ω phase on the non-classical precipitation of the α phase in metastable β-titanium alloys. Scr Mater 111:81–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zheng Y, Williams REA, Wang D, Shi R, Nag S, Kami P, Sosa JM, Banerjee R, Wang Y, Fraser HL (2016) Role of ω phase in the formation of extremely refined intragranular α precipitates in metastable β-titanium alloys. Acta Mater 103:850–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yu Z, Zhou L (2006) Influence of martensitic transformation on mechanical compatibility of biomedical β type titanium alloy TLM. Mater Sci Eng A 438–440:391–394Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hanada S, Izumi O (1987) Correlation of tensile properties, deformation modes, and phase stability in commercial β-phase titanium alloys. Metall Trans A 18:265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Min XH, Tsuzaki K, Emura S, Tsuchiya K (2011) Enhancement of uniform elongation in high strength Ti–Mo based alloys by combination of deformation modes. Mater Sci Eng A 528:4569–4578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lin DJ, Chern Lin JH, Ju CP (2002) Structure and properties of Ti–7.5Mo–xFe alloys. Biomaterials 23:1723–1730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Feeney JA, Blackburn MJ (1970) Effect of microstructure on the strength, toughness, and stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of a metastable beta titanium alloy (Ti–11.5Mo–6Zr–4.5Sn). Metall Trans 1:3309–3323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lu J, Zhao Y, Ge P, Zhang Y, Niu H, Zhang W, Zhang P (2015) Precipitation behavior and tensile properties of new high strength beta titanium alloy Ti-1300. J Alloys Compd 637:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy and School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations