Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 16, pp 11228–11241 | Cite as

Diversiform electrical and thermal expansion properties of (1 − x)Ba0.95Ca0.05Ti0.94Zr0.06O3–(x)Dy lead-free piezoelectric ceramics influenced by defect complexes

  • Yongshang Tian
  • Shuiyun Li
  • Youyang Li
  • Yansheng Gong
  • Xiang Ji
  • Shujie Sun
  • Qiangshan Jing


(1 − x)Ba0.95Ca0.05Ti0.94Zr0.06O3–(x)Dy (x = 0–0.90 mol%) lead-free ceramics were prepared at 1190 °C with as-synthesized nanoparticles via a modified Pechini polymeric precursor method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectrometer, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the phase, symmetry, and valence state, respectively. The results indicated dysprosium could induce the phase transformation from O to R. The mechanism of defect complexes and oxygen vacancies that influenced by various dysprosium contents were discussed in detail. The results of dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric characteristics suggested the electrical properties were initially elevated with a trifling addition of dysprosium contents, and then decreased with further increased x. Moreover, reasons for diversified electrical properties, i.e., imbalanced long-range and short-range forces, changed octahedron structure, defect dipole, pinching effects of domain wall and element electronegative, were all stated in detail. The optimal physical properties, d33 = 371 pC/N, Qm = 87, and CTE2 = 1.23 × 10−5 K−1, were detected at x = 0.60 mol%, and those findings were regarded as prospect in the development of lead-free ferroelectric ceramic materials.



This work was supported by Henan Provincial Department of Science and Technology Research Project (172102210457) and Nanhu Scholars Program for Young Scholars of XYNU.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Henan Province Key Laboratory of Utilization of Non–Metallic Mineral in the South of Henan, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringXinyang Normal UniversityXinyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Faculty of Material Science and ChemistryChina University of GeosciencesWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and ProcessingWuhan University of TechnologyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.School of Materials and Chemical TechnologyTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

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