Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 14, pp 10423–10441 | Cite as

Microstructure evolution of Cu–30Zn during friction stir welding

  • X. C. Liu
  • Y. F. Sun
  • T. Nagira
  • K. Ushioda
  • H. Fujii


The microstructure evolution of Cu–30Zn during the deformation and cooling stages of friction stir welding was separately investigated by employing the in-process rapid cooling, tool “stop action”, and subsequent short-time annealing. A pure copper foil was inserted into the butting surfaces of the two workpieces to show the microstructure evolution path. The microstructure along the material flow path was investigated by the EBSD technique. At the weld’s upper part, continuous material flow occurs nearly over the whole range of the shoulder. The initial coarse grains are refined by the discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) accompanied by the annealing twinning. During the material flow, the grain structure evolution is dominated by the annealing twinning during the thermally activated grain boundary migration and the subsequent twin destruction due to further deformation, resulting in a nearly constant grain size. Finally, normal grain growth occurs at the cooling period. At the lower part, the material transfers in a very thin layer near the probe surface and rapidly forms stable band structures. Due to the lower heat generation and higher strain rate, the mechanical twinning occurs in front of the probe. These deformation twins can provide additional nucleation sites for the DDRX via the twin destruction caused by further deformation. The higher strain rate in the weld’s lower part contributes to the finer grains than that of the upper part grains. However, due to the shoulder’s coverage, the lower part undergoes a longer cooling period than the upper part, and thus more significant grain growth occurs.



This study was partly supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) under the “Innovation Structural Materials Project (Future Pioneering Projects)” and a Grant-in-Aid for Science Research from the Japan Society for Promotion of Science. One of the authors, Xiaochao Liu, thanks the China Scholarship Council for providing a scholarship.


  1. 1.
    Mishra RS, Ma ZY (2005) Friction stir welding and processing. Mater Sci Eng R: Rep 50(1):1–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ma ZY, Feng AH, Chen DL, Shen J (2017) Recent advances in friction stir welding/processing of aluminum alloys: microstructural evolution and mechanical properties. Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci. Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Davis JR (ed) (2001) ASM specialty handbook: copper and copper alloys. ASM International, Materials Park, OHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Park HS, Kimura T, Murakami T, Nagano Y, Nakata K, Ushio M (2004) Microstructures and mechanical properties of friction stir welds of 60% Cu–40% Zn copper alloy. Mater Sci Eng, A 371(1):160–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meran C (2006) The joint properties of brass plates by friction stir welding. Mater Des 27(9):719–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cam G, Serindağ HT, Cakan A, Mistikoglu S, Yavuz H (2008) The effect of weld parameters on friction stir welding of brass plates. Materialwiss Werkstofftech 39(6):394–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xie GM, Ma ZY, Geng L (2008) Effects of friction stir welding parameters on microstructures and mechanical properties of brass joints. Mater Trans 49(7):1698–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cam G, Mistikoglu S, Pakdil M (2009) Microstructural and mechanical characterization of friction stir butt joint welded 63% Cu-37% Zn brass plate. Weld J 88(11):225–232Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moghaddam MS, Parvizi R, Haddad-Sabzevar M, Davoodi A (2011) Microstructural and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Cu–30Zn brass alloy at various feed speeds: influence of stir bands. Mater Des 32(5):2749–2755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sun YF, Xu N, Fujii H (2014) The microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Cu–30Zn brass alloys. Mater Sci Eng, A 589:228–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Emamikhah A, Abbasi A, Atefat A, Givi MB (2014) Effect of tool pin profile on friction stir butt welding of high-zinc brass (CuZn40). Int J Adv Manuf Technol 71(1–4):81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Heidarzadeh A, Saeid T (2016) A comparative study of microstructure and mechanical properties between friction stir welded single and double phase brass alloys. Mater Sci Eng, A 649:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xu N, Ueji R, Fujii H (2014) Enhanced mechanical properties of 70/30 brass joint by rapid cooling friction stir welding. Mater Sci Eng, A 610:132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu N, Ueji R, Fujii H (2015) Enhanced mechanical properties of 70/30 brass joint by multi-pass friction stir welding with rapid cooling. Sci Technol Weld Join 20(2):91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xie GM, Ma ZY, Geng L (2009) Partial recrystallization in the nugget zone of friction stir welded dual-phase Cu–Zn alloy. Philos Mag 89(18):1505–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mironov S, Inagaki K, Sato YS, Kokawa H (2014) Development of grain structure during friction-stir welding of Cu–30Zn brass. Philos Mag 94(27):3137–3148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Heidarzadeh A, Saeid T, Klemm V (2016) Microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of friction stir welded commercial brass alloy. Mater Charact 119:84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fonda RW, Bingert JF, Colligan KJ (2004) Development of grain structure during friction stir welding. Scripta Mater 51(3):243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prangnell PB, Heason CP (2005) Grain structure formation during friction stir welding observed by the ‘stop action technique’. Acta Mater 53(11):3179–3192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xu N, Ueji R, Fujii H (2016) Dynamic and static change of grain size and texture of copper during friction stir welding. J Mater Process Technol 232:90–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morisada Y, Fujii H, Kawahito Y, Nakata K, Tanaka M (2011) Three-dimensional visualization of material flow during friction stir welding by two pairs of X-ray transmission systems. Scripta Mater 65(12):1085–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu XC, Sun YF, Morisada Y, Fujii H (2018) Dynamics of rotational flow in friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. J Mater Process Technol 252:643–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu XC, Sun YF, Fujii H (2017) Clarification of microstructure evolution of copper during friction stir welding using liquid CO2 rapid cooling. Preprints of the national meeting of JWS.
  24. 24.
    Liu X, Wu C, Padhy GK (2015) Characterization of plastic deformation and material flow in ultrasonic vibration enhanced friction stir welding. Scripta Mater 102:95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu XC, Wu CS (2015) Material flow in ultrasonic vibration enhanced friction stir welding. J Mater Process Technol 225:32–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sharma C, Dwivedi DK, Kumar P (2012) Influence of in-process cooling on tensile behaviour of friction stir welded joints of AA7039. Mater Sci Eng, A 556:479–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fujii H, Chung YD, Sun YF (2013) Friction stir welding of AISI 1080 steel using liquid CO2 for enhanced toughness and ductility. Sci Technol Weld Join 18(6):500–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu XC, Sun YF, Fujii H (2017) Clarification of microstructure evolution of aluminum during friction stir welding using liquid CO2 rapid cooling. Mater Des 129:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu XC, Sun YF, Nagira T, Fujii H (2018) Investigation of temperature dependent microstructure evolution of pure iron during friction stir welding using liquid CO2 rapid cooling. Mater Charact 137:24–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jin Y (2014) Annealing twin formation mechanism. Diss, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de ParisGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fonda RW, Knipling KE (2011) Texture development in friction stir welds. Sci Technol Weld Join 16(4):288–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tóth LS, Neale KW, Jonas JJ (1989) Stress response and persistence characteristics of the ideal orientations of shear textures. Acta Metall 37(8):2197–2210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li S, Beyerlein IJ, Bourke MA (2005) Texture formation during equal channel angular extrusion of fcc and bcc materials: comparison with simple shear. Mater Sci Eng, A 394(1):66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kondou R, Ohashi T (2006) Grain boundary accumulation of geometrically necessary dislocations and asymmetric deformations in compatible bicrystals with tilted angle grain boundary under tensile loading. JSME Int J Ser A Solid Mech Mater Eng 49(4):581–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jiang J, Britton TB, Wilkinson AJ (2012) Accumulation of geometrically necessary dislocations near grain boundaries in deformed copper. Philos Mag Lett 92(11):580–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hughes DA, Hansen N, Bammann DJ (2003) Geometrically necessary boundaries, incidental dislocation boundaries and geometrically necessary dislocations. Scripta Mater 48(2):147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ponge D, Gottstein G (1998) Necklace formation during dynamic recrystallization: mechanisms and impact on flow behavior. Acta Mater 46(1):69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Humphreys FJ, Hatherly M (2012) Recrystallization and related annealing phenomena. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Miura H, Sakai T, Mogawa R, Jonas JJ (2007) Nucleation of dynamic recrystallization and variant selection in copper bicrystals. Philos Mag 87(27):4197–4209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nemat-Nasser S, Li Y (1998) Flow stress of fcc polycrystals with application to OFHC Cu. Acta Mater 46(2):565–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Konkova T, Mironov S, Korznikov A, Korznikova G, Myshlyaev MM, Semiatin SL (2015) Grain structure evolution during cryogenic rolling of alpha brass. J Alloys Compd 629:140–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Magalhães DCC, Kliauga AM, Ferrante M, Sordi VL (2017) Plastic deformation of FCC alloys at cryogenic temperature: the effect of stacking-fault energy on microstructure and tensile behaviour. J Mater Sci 52(12):7466–7478. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hirsch J, Lücke K, Hatherly M (1988) Overview no. 76: mechanism of deformation and development of rolling textures in polycrystalline fcc metals—III. The influence of slip inhomogeneities and twinning. Acta Metall 36(11):2905–2927CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Joining and Welding Research InstituteOsaka UniversityIbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations