Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 14, pp 10513–10522 | Cite as

A control of structural morphology via introducing insulating polymers in n-type P(NDI2OD-T2) semiconductor

  • Yu Jin Kim


An issue for the morphology control of organic materials in active layer has still been in spotlight. Most research people have focused on the p-type semiconducting compounds; however, the studies on the n-type materials are rarely conducted. Thus, in this paper, we systematically controlled the morphology of the n-type semiconductor by introducing insulating polymers, PS and PAN. We analyzed the structural variation of the P(NDI2OD-T2):PS and P(NDI2OD-T2):PAN films depending on their blend ratios or thermal annealing treatment. From results, we could understand that the morphology of P(NDI2OD-T2) molecules was varied with random packing orientations. Through our study, we can believe that we suggest a new approach of the morphology control for the n-type semiconducting polymers, which will benefit to other materials.



This work was supported by a grant from the Center for Advanced Soft Electronics (2013M3A6A5073175) under the Global Frontier Research Program of the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology, Korea. Y. J. Kim acknowledges support from the Maria Goeppert Mayer Named Fellowship at Argonne National Laboratory.


  1. 1.
    Huang Y, Kramer EJ, Heeger AJ, Bazan GC (2014) Bulk heterojunction solar cells: morphology and performance relationships. Chem Rev 114:7006–7043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liao HC, Ho CC, Chang CY, Jao MH, Darling SB, Su WF (2013) Additives for morphology control in high-efficiency organic solar cells. Mater Today 16:326–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scharber MC, Sariciftci NS (2013) Efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. Prog Polym Sci 38:1929–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li G, Zhu R, Yang Y (2012) Polymer solar cells. Nat Photonics 6:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim YJ, Chung DS, Park CE (2015) Highly thermally stable non-fullerene organic solar cells:p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:P(NDI2OD-T2) bulk heterojunction. Nano Energy 15:343–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang X, Loos J, Veenstra SC, Verhees WJH, Wienk MM, Kroon JM, Michels MJA, Janssen RAJ (2005) Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells. Nano Lett 5:579–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diao Y, Shaw L, Bao Z, Mannsfeld SCB (2014) Morphology control strategies for solution-processed organic semiconductor thin films. Energy Environ Sci 7:2145–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Noriega R, Rivnay J, Vandewal K, Koch FPV, Stingelin N, Smith P, Toney MF, Salleo A (2013) A general relationship between disorder, aggregation and charge transport in conjugated polymers. Nat Mater 12:1038–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dong H, Hu W (2016) Multilevel investigation of charge transport in conjugated polymers. Acc Chem Res 49:2435–2443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lei Y, Deng P, Lin M, Zheng X, Zhu F, Ong BS (2016) Enhancing crystalline structural orders of polymer semiconductors for efficient charge transport via polymer-matrix-mediated molecular self-assembly. Adv Mater 28:6687–6694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huang Y, Wen W, Mukherjee S, Ade H, Kramer EJ, Bazan GC (2014) High-molecular-weight insulating polymers can improve the performance of molecular solar cells. Adv Mater 26:4168–4172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yan H, Chen Z, Zheng Y, Newman C, Quinn JR, Dötz F, Kastler M, Facchetti A (2009) A high-mobility electron-transporting polymer for printed transistors. Nature 457:679–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ben-Sasson AJ, Chen Z, Facchetti A, Tessler N (2012) Solution-processed ambipolar vertical organic field effect transistor. Appl Phys Lett 100:263306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim YJ, Park CE (2015) The impact of P(NDI2OD-T2) crystalline domains on the open-circuit voltage of bilayer all-polymer solar cells with an inverted configuration. APL Mater 3:126105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tremel K, Fischer FSU, Kayunkid N, Pietro RD, Tkachov R, Kiriy A, Neher D, Ludwigs S, Brinkmann M (2014) Charge transport anisotropy in highly oriented thin films of the acceptor polymer P(NDI2OD-T2). Adv Energy Mater 4:1301659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schuettfort T, Thomsen L, McNeill CR (2013) Observation of a distinct surface molecular orientation in films of a high mobility conjugated polymer. J Am Chem Soc 135:1092–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tsao HN, Müllen K (2010) Improving polymer transistor performance via morphology control. Chem Soc Rev 39:2372–2386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Richter LJ, DeLongchamp DM, Amassian A (2017) Morphology development in solution-processed functional organic blend films: an in situ viewpoint. Chem Rev 117:6332–6366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen W, Nikiforov MP, Darling SB (2012) Morphology characterization in organic and hybrid solar cells. Energy Environ Sci 5:8045–8074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li S, Ye L, Zhao W, Liu X, Zhu J, Ade H, Hou J (2017) Adv Mater 29:1704051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim J, Swager TM (2001) Control of conformational and interpolymer effects in conjugated polymers. Nature 411:1030–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Coffin RC, Peet J, Rogers J, Bazan GC (2009) Streamlined microwave-assisted preparation of narrow-bandgap conjugated polymers for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells. Nat Chem 1:657–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection  2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.POSTECH Organic Electronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical EngineeringPohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH)PohangRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Argonne National LaboratoryCenter for Nanoscale MaterialsLemontUSA

Personalised recommendations