Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 14, pp 9896–9912 | Cite as

Preparation of radiopaque polyurethane–urea/graphene oxide nanocomposite using 4-(4-iodophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolidine-3,5-dione

  • Saeed Shiralizadeh
  • Hossein Nasr-Isfahani
  • Ali Keivanloo
  • Mohammad Bakherad
  • Behrooz Yahyaei
  • Parastoo Pourali


New radiopaque nanocomposites were prepared based on iodinated polyurethane–urea (PUU) and graphene oxide (GO). The iodinated PUU was synthesized using 4,4′-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mn = 1000), and 4-(4-iodophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolidine-3,5-dione (IUr) as a novel chain extender and radiopacifying agent. The synthesized urazole, PUU, and the related nanocomposites are characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis (CHNO), thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The X-ray visibility of the radiopaque PUU and nanocomposites was investigated using X-radiography. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the samples, the indirect MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was carried out on the non-cancerous mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 D4 according to the ISO10993-5 standard. The DMTA results proved introduction of the GO layers into the iodinated PUU matrix, and has improved mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to the pure polymer. The X-ray images showed significant radiopacity of the pure polymer and the nanocomposites.



This study was funded by Shahrood University of Technology (Grant Number 50/3786). We are also grateful to Medical department of Islamic Azad University of Shahrood, for assistance in measuring the radiopacity of the samples.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10853_2018_2286_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (389 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 388 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ChemistryShahrood University of TechnologyShahroodIran
  2. 2.Department of Medical Sciences, Shahrood BranchIslamic Azad UniversityShahroodIran

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