Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 13, pp 9533–9544 | Cite as

Synthesis of Ti matrix composites reinforced with TiC particles: in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and modeling

  • Jérôme Andrieux
  • Bruno Gardiola
  • Olivier Dezellus
Composites
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

The reaction tending toward thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis of Ti/TiC MMC prepared by the powder metallurgy route was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The carbide composition was found to change rapidly from its initial stoichiometric value TiC0.96 toward a substoichiometric value (TiC0.57) corresponding to thermodynamic equilibrium with the C-saturated Ti matrix. The reaction rate is very fast, and the solid-state reaction is almost complete after only a few minutes at 1073 K (800 °C) for the smallest particles, whereas the rate-limiting step remains the particle size. In addition, modeling of the diffusion processes in MMCs, i.e., initial dissolution of particles and their trend toward equilibrium composition, was performed using three particles size classes and the calculations were performed using the ThermoCalc and Dictra package. First, dissolution of the smallest particles (10% of the initial TiC0.96 particles) is expected to be achieved after only 1 s at 800 °C. Second, the change in TiC composition leads to an increase in the total amount of carbide in the composite from 16 to 19 mass%. The consequences on the industrial process of Ti/TiC MMC synthesis have also been considered. A typical industrial heat treatment of a MMC billet, 1 h at 900 °C, was modeled, and the results showing an increase in the total amount of carbide in the composite from 16 to 22 mass% are in rather good agreement with the experimental value (21 mass%). This highlights the potential of thermodynamic and kinetic modeling to help understand and optimize industrial processes for MMC synthesis.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was undertaken in the framework of the COMETTi project funded by the French national research agency (ANR) [Grant Number ANR-09-MAPR-0021]. O.D. is very grateful to Dr. S. Fries and Pr. I. Steinbach from ICAMS institute at Bochum University (Germany) for allowing DICTRA calculations on their informatics cluster. J.A. thanks ID15B beamline staff for their help during beam time and ESRF for the provision of beamtime through in-house research during his postdoctoral position. The authors thank Gilles RENOU for the STEM observation performed at the “Consortium des Moyens Technologiques Communs” (CMTC, http://cmtc.grenoble-inp.fr). Composite powders were provided by the Mecachrome company (www.mecachrome.fr).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Clyne TW, Withers PJ (1993) An introduction to metal matrix composites. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lindroos VK, Talvitie MJ (1995) Recent advances in metal matrix composites. J Mater Process Tech 53:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miracle DB (2005) Metal matrix composites: from science to technological significance. Compos Sci Technol 65:2526–2540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huang LJ, Geng L, Xu HY, Peng HX (2011) In situ TiC particles reinforced Ti6Al4 V matrix composite with a network reinforcement architecture. Mat Sci Eng A Struct 528:2859–2862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu Y, Chen LF, Tang HP et al (2006) Design of powder metallurgy titanium alloys and composites. Mat Sci Eng A Struct 418:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Quinn CJ, Dl Kohlstedt (1984) Solid-state reaction between titanium carbide and titanium metal. J Am Ceram Soc 67:305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wanjara P, Drew RAL, Root J, Yue S (2000) Evidence for stable stoichiometric Ti2C at the interface in TiC particulate reinforced Ti alloy composites. Acta Mater 48:1443–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roger J, Gardiola B, Andrieux J et al (2017) Synthesis of Ti matrix composites reinforced with TiC particles: thermodynamic equilibrium and change in microstructure. J Mater Sci 52:4129–4141.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-016-0677-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dumitrescu LFS, Hillert M, Sundman B (1999) A reassessment of Ti-C-N based on a critical review of available assessments of Ti-N and Ti-C. Z Metallkd 90:534–541Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andersson JO, Helander T, Höglund L et al (2002) Thermo-Calc and DICTRA, computational tools for materials science. Calphad 26:273–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hammersley AP, Svensson SO, Hanfland M et al (1996) Two-dimensional detector software: from real detector to idealised image or two-theta scan. High Press Res 14:235–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roisnel T, Rodríguez-Carvajal J (2001) WinPLOTR: a windows tool for powder diffraction pattern analysis. In: Materials science forum. Transtec Publications, pp 118–123Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rodríguez-Carvajal J (1993) Recent advances in magnetic structure determination by neutron powder diffraction. Phys B 192:55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Seifert HJ, Lukas HL, Petzow G (1996) Thermodynamic optimization of the Ti-C system. J Phase Equilib 17:24–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jonsson S (1996) Assessment of the Ti-C system. Z Metallkd 87:703–712Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frisk K (2003) A revised thermodynamic description of the Ti-C system. Calphad 27:367–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Storms EK (1962) A critical review of refractories. Part I. Selected properties of Group 4a, 5a and 6a carbides, Rept. no. LAMS-2674, Los Alamos Sci. Lab. p. 23Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bittner H, Goretzki H (1962) Magnetische untersuchungen der carbide TiC, ZrC, HfC, VC, NbC und TaC. Monatsh Chem 93:1000–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Norton JT, Lewis RK (1963) Properties of non-stoichiometric metallic carbides, Advanced Metals Research Corp, Somerville, Massachusetts, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rudy E, Bruckl C, Harmond DP (1965) Ternary phase equilibria in transition metal-boron-carbon-silicon systems. Air Force Materials Laboratory, Research and Technology DivisionGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Storms EK (1967) The refractory carbides. In: Refractory materials, a series of monographs, vol. 2, Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ramqvist L (1968) Variation of lattice parameter and hardness with carbon content of group 4 B metal carbides. Jka-Jernkontoret Ann 152:517Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vicens J, Chermant JL (1972) Contribution to study of system Titanium–Carbon–Oxygen. Rev Chim Miner 9:557–567Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kiparisov SS, Narva VK, Kolupaeva SY (1975) Effect of titanium carbide composition on the properties of titanium carbide-steel materials. Poroshk Metall 7:41–44Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Frage N, Levin L, Manor E et al (1996) Iron-titanium-carbon system. II. Microstructure of titanium carbide (TiCx) of various stoichiometries infiltrated with iron-carbon alloy. Scripta Mater 35:799–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fernandes JC, Anjinho C, Amaral PM et al (2003) Characterisation of solar-synthesised TiCx (x = 0.50, 0.625, 0.75, 0.85, 0.90 and 1.0) by X-ray diffraction, density and Vickers microhardness. Mater Chem Phys 77:711–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hugosson HW, Korzhavyi P, Jansson U et al (2001) Phase stabilities and structural relaxations in substoichiometric TiC1-x. Phys Rev B 63:165116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Andersson JO, Höglund L, Jönsson B, Ågren J (1990) Computer simulation of multicomponent diffusional transformations in steel. In: Purdy GR (ed) Fundamentals and applications of ternary diffusion. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Borgenstam A, Höglund L, Ågren J, Engström A (2000) DICTRA, a tool for simulation of diffusional transformations in alloys. J Phase Equilib 21:269–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Agren J (1990) Kinetics of Carbide Dissolution. Scand J Metall 19:2–8Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gustafson Å (2000) Coarsening of TiC in austenitic stainless steel - experiments and simulations in comparison. Mat Sci Eng A Struct 287:52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Van Loo FJJ, Bastin GF (1989) On the diffusion of carbon in titanium carbide. Metall Trans A 20:403–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et InterfacesUniversité Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRSVilleurbanneFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces – UMR CNRS 5615Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1VilleurbanneFrance

Personalised recommendations