Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 12, pp 9076–9090 | Cite as

Water vapour permeation through high barrier materials: numerical simulation and comparison with experiments

  • A. Batard
  • E. Planes
  • T. Duforestel
  • L. Flandin
  • B. Yrieix
Computation

Abstract

The long-term thermal performance of vacuum insulation panels (VIP) is brought by the capacity of their barrier envelope to maintain the core material under vacuum. This study is focused on the detailed modelling of gas transfer through the defects of aluminium-coated polymer films used for VIPs’ envelopes. The 3D simulations were performed with monolayer and multilayer metal-coated polymer films. They have been carried out in dynamic conditions with the SYRTHES® software developed by EDF R&D. The results show that the water vapour and air permeations through a monolayer film slightly depend on the polymer substrate thickness, diffusivity and solubility, but primarily, on the defects geometry and arrangement. Regarding multilayer films, the permeation can be deduced from the ideal laminate theory. We are now able to provide and operate a numerical model, which can calculate the permeance of monolayer or multilayer metallized polymer films as a function of the coating quality and the geometry of the layers. Even if calculated permeances are ten times higher than measurements, this study improves our understanding of gas transports through VIPs’ barrier envelope and allows to manage more efficiently the relations between the films microstructures and their overall permeability. This paper is split into 6 parts: physical phenomena, methodology and modelling tools, simulation results, experiments and model validation and then, discussion and conclusion.

List of symbols

Greek letters

\(\lambda \)

Thermal conductivity (\(\hbox {W}\,\hbox {m}^{-1}\,\hbox {K}^{-1}\))

\(\phi _i\)

Mass flux density of gas i (\(\hbox {kg}\,\hbox {s}^{-1}\))

\(\Pi _i\)

Permeance to the gas i (\(\hbox {kg}\,\hbox {m}^{-2}\,\hbox {s}^{-1}\,\hbox {Pa}^{-1}\))

\(\rho \)

Density (\(\hbox {kg}\,\hbox {m}^{-3}\))

Other symbols

\(\emptyset \)

Defect diameter (m)

Physical constants

\(k_{\mathrm{B}}\)

Boltzmann’s constant (\(1.381\times 10^{-23}\,\hbox {J}\,\hbox {K}^{-1}\))

\(r_i\)

Specific gas constant of gas i (\(\hbox {J}\,\hbox {kg}^{-1}\,\hbox {K}^{-1}\))

Roman letters

\(c_i\)

Concentration of a gas i (\(\hbox {kg}\,\hbox {m}^{-3}\))

\(c_p\)

Specific heat capacity (\(\hbox {J}\,\hbox {kg}^{-1}\,\hbox {K}^{-1}\))

\(D_{\mathrm{K}}\)

Knudsen coefficient (\(\hbox {m}^2\,\hbox {s}^{-1}\))

\(D_{i,j}\)

Diffusion coefficient of gas i in material j (\(\hbox {m}^2\,\hbox {s}^{-1}\))

\(e_{\mathrm{poly}}\)

Polymer thickness (m)

FSD

Surface fraction of defects (%)

k

Scale factor (–)

L

Distance between defects (m)

l

Barrier complex’s thickness (m)

\(m_i\)

Molecular mass of gas i (kg)

\(p_i\)

Partial pressure of gas i (Pa)

\(S_{i,j}\)

Solubility coefficient of gas i in material j (\(\hbox {kg}\,\hbox {m}^{-3}\,\hbox {Pa}^{-1}\))

T

Temperature (K)

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the collaborators of the Project EMMA-PIV (No. ANR 12-VBDU-0004-01) that includes this research and also the National Research Agency (ANR) for his financial support. Thanks also to the “Consortium des Moyens Technologiques Communs” (CMTC, 38, France) for his contribution to the SEM observations. This work is performed within the framework of the Centre of Excellence of Multifunctional Architectured Materials “CEMAM” No. AN-10-LABX-44-01.

References

  1. 1.
    Erb M, Simmler H, Brunner S, Heinemann U, Schwab H, Kumaran K, Mukhopadhyaya P, Quenard D, Sallee H, Noller K, Kucukpinar-Niarchos E, Stramm C, Cauberg MTH (2005) Vacuum insulation panels—study on VIP-components and panels for service life—prediction of VIP in building applications (subtask A). Tech. Rep. Sept 2005, HiPTI—High Performance Thermal Insulation—IEA/ECBCS Annex 39Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    CSTB (2005) Quelle durabilite des produits de construction?Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ISO (2014) NF ISO 15686—bâtiments et biens immobiliers construits, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garnier G, Marouani S, Yrieix B, Pompeo C, Chauvois M, Flandin L, Brechet Y (2011) Interest and durability of multilayers: from model films to complex films. Polym Adv Technol 22(6):847–856.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.1587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schwab H, Heinemann U, Beck A, Ebert H-P, Fricke J (2005) Permeation of different gases through foils used as envelopes for vacuum insulation panels. J Therm Envel Build Sci 28(4):293–317.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1097196305051791 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Garnier G, Quenard D, Yrieix B, Chauvois M, Flandin L, Brechet Y (2007) Optimization, design, and durability of vacuum insulation panels. In: 8th international vacuum insulation symposium (1), pp 1–8Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garnier G, Yrieix B, Brechet Y, Flandin L (2010) Influence of structural feature of aluminum coatings on mechanical and water barrier properties of metallized pet films. J Appl Polym Sci 115(5):3110–3119.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.31372 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hanika M, Langowski HC, Moosheimer U, Peukert W (2003) Inorganic layers on polymeric films—influence of defects and morphology on barrier properties. Chem Eng Technol 26(5):605–614.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.200390093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hanika M (2004) Zur permeation durch aluminiumbedampfte polypropylen- und polyethylenterephtalatfolien, Ph.D. thesisGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miesbauer O, Schmidt M, Langowski HC (2008) Stofftransport Durch Schichtsysteme aus Polymeren und Dünnen Anorganischen Schichten, vol 20, pp 32–40. Wiley.  https://doi.org/10.1002/vipr.200800372
  11. 11.
    Miesbauer O (2017) Analytische und numerische Berechnungen zur Barrierewirkung von Mehrschichtstrukturen. Tech. rep., Technische Universität München, München. http://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1340275. Accessed 19 Mar 2018
  12. 12.
    Stannett V (1968) Simple gases. In: Crank J, Park GS (eds) Diffusion in polymers. Academic Press, New York, pp 41–73Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hopfenberg HB, Stannett V (1973) The diffusion and sorption of gases and vapours in glassy polymers. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 504–547Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Flaconneche B, Martin J, Klopffer MH (2001) Permeability, diffusion and solubility of gases in polyethylene, polyamide 11 and poly (vinylidene fluoride). Oil Gas Sci Technol 56(3):261–278.  https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst:2001023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Klopffer MH, Flaconneche B (2001) Transport properdines of gases in polymers: bibliographic review. Oil Gas Sci Technol 56(3):223–244.  https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst:2001021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    He W, Lv W, Dickerson JH (2014) Gas diffusion mechanisms and models. Springer, Cham, pp 9–17.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09737-4_2
  17. 17.
    EDF, Rupp I, Peniguel C (2015) Syrthes, version 4.3Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pons E, Yrieix B, Heymans L, Dubelley F, Planes E (2015) Permeation of water vapor through high performance laminates for VIPs and physical characterization of sorption and diffusion phenomena. Energy Build 85:604–616.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.08.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shigetomi T, Tsuzumi H, Toi K, Ito T (1999) Sorption and diffusion of water vapor in poly(ethylene terephthalate) film. Polymer 76(1):67–74Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Launay A, Thominette F, Verdu J (1999) Water sorption in amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate). J Appl Polym Sci 73(7):1131–1137.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19990815)73:701131::AID-APP403.0.CO;2-U CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rueda DR, Varkalis A (1995) Water sorption/desorption kinetics in poly(ethylene naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylate) and poly(ethylene terephthalate). J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 33(16):2263–2268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yasuda H, Stannett V (1962) Permeation, solution, and diffusion of water in some high polymers. J Polym Sci 57(165):907–923.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1962.1205716571 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Langowski HC (2008) Permeation of gases and condensable substances through monolayer and multilayer structures, pp 297–347.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527621422.ch10
  24. 24.
    Schrenk WJ, Alfred TJ (1969) Some physical properties of multilayered films. Polym Eng Sci 9(6):393–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Singh B, Bouchet J, Rochat G, Leterrier Y, Månson JE, Fayet P (2007) Ultra-thin hybrid organic/inorganic gas barrier coatings on polymers. Surf Coat Technol 201(16–17):7107–7114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2007.01.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roberts AP, Henry BM, Sutton AP, Grovenor CRM, Briggs GAD, Miyamoto T, Kano M, Tsukahara Y, Yanaka M (2002) Gas permeation in silicon-oxide/polymer (SiO\(_x\)/PET) barrier films: role of the oxide lattice, nano-defects and macro-defects. J Membr Sci 208(1–2):75–88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-7388(02)00178-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rochat G, Leterrier Y, Fayet P, Manson J-AE (2005) Influence of substrate additives on the mechanical properties of ultrathin oxide coatings on poly(ethylene terephthalate). Surf Coat Technol 200(7):2236–2242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cakmak M, Spruiell JE, White JL, Ye JSL (1987) Small angle and wide angle X-ray pole figure studies on simultaneous biaxially stretched poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films. Polym Eng Sci 27(12):893–905.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.760271205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Karacan I (2005) An in depth study of crystallinity, crystallite size and orientation measurements of a selection of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers. Fiber Polym 6(3):186–199.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02875642 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carr JM, MacKey M, Flandin L, Schuele D, Zhu L, Baer E (2013) Effect of biaxial orientation on dielectric and breakdown properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-tetrafluoroethylene) multilayer films. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 51(11):882–896.  https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.23277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nurenberg H, Hoshi S, Kondo T (2008) Measurement of water vapor permeation in the range of e\(^{-3}\) and e\(^{-5}\,{\text{g/m}}^{2}\)/day for applications in flexible electronics. Tech. Rep. 1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EDF R&D, ENERBATEDF Lab Les RenardièresMoret-Loing-et-OrvanneFrance
  2. 2.LEPMI, LMOPSUniversité de SavoieLe Bourget-du-LacFrance
  3. 3.EDF R&D, MMCEDF Lab Les RenardièresMoret-Loing-et-OrvanneFrance

Personalised recommendations