Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 12, pp 8795–8806 | Cite as

Cell attachment/detachment behavior on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based microgel films: the effect of microgel structure and swelling ratio

  • Yongqing Xia
  • Dachao Tang
  • Han Wu
  • Xiaojuan Wang
  • Meiwen Cao
  • Hua He
  • Shengjie Wang
Biomaterials
  • 259 Downloads

Abstract

Microgels are cross-linked soft particles with a three-dimensional network structure that are swollen in a good solvent. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm)-based microgels have attracted great attentions for their temperature responsive property, particularly in recent years, pNIPAAm-based microgel films were utilized as a new kind of thermoresponsive surface to tune cell attachment/detachment behavior via temperature stimuli. However, some results are not consistent, for example, different polymerization conditions may bring out different results even for pure pNIPAAm microgel. This work aims to find out which factor plays the critical role for successful cell detachment on the pNIPAAm-based microgel films. The results unraveled that the structure and swelling ratio of the microgel rather than the film thickness plays a key role on the successful cells detachment, unlike linear pNIPAAm films in which the cells’ attach/detach property is only determined by the film thickness. For poly(N-isopropylacrylamide–styrene) microgel film, NIH3T3 cells could only detach when the microgel has a uniform structure and the volume dilatation of the microgel (20/38 °C) is larger than 4.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Natural Science Fund of Shandong Province (ZR2015BM013) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21773310).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Elloumi-Hannachi I, Yamato M, Okano T (2010) Cell sheet engineering: a unique nanotechnology for scaffold-free tissue reconstruction with clinical applications in regenerative medicine. Biomaterials 31:8974–8979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Takahashi H, Nakayama M, Itoga K, Yamato M, Okano T (2011) Micropatterned thermoresponsive polymer brush surfaces for fabricating cell sheets with well-controlled orientational structures. Biomacromolecules 12:1414–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ohtsuki K, Miyai S, Yamaguchi A, Morikawa K, Okano T (2012) Biochemical characterization of novel lignans isolated from the wood of Taxus yunnanensis as effective stimulators for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and the phosphorylation of basic brain proteins by the kinase in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull 35:385–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Patel NG, Cavicchia JP, Zhang G, Zhang NB (2012) Rapid cell sheet detachment using spin-coated pNIPAAm films retained on surfaces by an aminopropyltriethoxysilane network. Acta Biomater 8:2559–2567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tang Z, Akiyama Y, Yamato M, Okano T (2010) Comb-type grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel modified surfaces for rapid detachment of cell sheet. Biomaterials 31:7435–7443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen YH, Chung YC, Wang IJ, Young TH (2012) Control of cell attachment on pH-responsive chitosan surface by precise adjustment of medium pH. Biomaterials 33:1336–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zahn R, Thomasson E, Guillaume-Gentil O, Voros J, Zambelli T (2012) Ion-induced cell sheet detachment from standard cell culture surfaces coated with polyelectrolytes. Biomaterials 33:3421–3427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hong Y, Yu M, Weng W, Cheng K, Wang H, Lin J (2013) Light-induced cell detachment for cell sheet technology. Biomaterials 34:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nandkumar MA, Yamato M, Kushida A, Konno C, Hirose M, Kikuchi A, Okano T (2002) Two-dimensional cell sheet manipulation of heterotypically co-cultured lung cells utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes results in long-term maintenance of differentiated epithelial cell functions. Biomaterials 23:1121–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kwon OH, Kikuchi A, Yamato M, Sakurai Y, Okano T (2000) Rapid cell sheet detachment from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted porous cell culture membranes. J Biomed Mater Res 50:82–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Halperin A, Kröger M (2012) Thermoresponsive cell culture substrates based on PNIPAM brushes functionalized with adhesion peptides: theoretical considerations of mechanism and design. Langmuir 28:16623–16637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vaquette C, Fan W, Xiao Y, Hamlet S, Hutmacher DW, Ivanovski S (2012) A biphasic scaffold design combined with cell sheet technology for simultaneous regeneration of alveolar bone/periodontal ligament complex. Biomaterials 33:5560–5573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Halperin A, Kroger M (2012) Theoretical considerations on mechanisms of harvesting cells cultured on thermoresponsive polymer brushes. Biomaterials 33:4975–4987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Takahashi H, Nakayama M, Yamato M, Okano T (2010) Controlled chain length and graft density of thermoresponsive polymer brushes for optimizing cell sheet harvest. Biomacromolecules 11:1991–1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schmaljohann D, Oswald J, Jorgensen B, Nitschke M, Beyerlein D, Werner C (2003) Thermo-responsive PNiPAAm-g-PEG films for controlled cell detachment. Biomacromolecules 4:1733–1739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Matsuda TSN, Yamato M, Okano T (2007) Tissue engineering based on cell sheet technology. Adv Mater 19:3089–3099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Akiyama Y, Kikuchi A, Yamato M, Okano T (2004) Ultrathin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted layer on polystyrene surfaces for cell adhesion/detachment control. Langmuir 20:5506–5511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fukumori K, Akiyama Y, Yamato M, Kobayashi J, Sakai K, Okano T (2009) Temperature-responsive glass coverslips with an ultrathin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) layer. Acta Biomater 5:470–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li L, Zhu Y, Li B, Gao C (2008) Fabrication of thermoresponsive polymer gradients for study of cell adhesion and detachment. Langmuir 24:13632–13639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nagase K, Watanabe M, Kikuchi A, Yamato M, Okano T (2011) Thermo-responsive polymer brushes as intelligent biointerfaces: preparation via ATRP and characterization. Macromol Biosci 11:400–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schmidt S, Zeiser M, Hellweg T, Duschl C, Fery A, Möhwald H (2010) Adhesion and mechanical properties of PNIPAM microgel films and their potential use as switchable cell culture substrates. Adv Funct Mater 20:3235–3243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pan G, Guo Q, Ma Y, Yang H, Li B (2013) Thermo-responsive hydrogel layers imprinted with RGDS peptide: a system for harvesting cell sheets. Angew Chem Int Ed 52:6907–6911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Heinen S, Cuéllarcamacho JL, Weinhart M (2017) Thermoresponsive poly(glycidyl ether) brushes on gold: surface engineering parameters and their implication for cell sheet fabrication. Acta Biomater 59:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xia Y, He X, Cao M, Chen C, Xu H, Pan F, Lu JR (2013) Thermoresponsive microgel films for harvesting cells and cell sheets. Biomacromolecules 14:3615–3625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xia Y, He X, Cao M, Wang X, Sun Y, He H, Xu H, Lu JR (2014) Self-assembled two-dimensional thermoresponsive microgel arrays for cell growth/detachment control. Biomacromolecules 15:4021–4031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Uhlig K, Wegener T, He J, Zeiser M, Bookhold J, Dewald I, Godino N, Jaeger M, Hellweg T, Fery A, Dusch C (2016) Patterned thermoresponsive microgel coatings for noninvasive processing of adherent cells. Biomacromolecules 17:1110–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wei J, Cai J, Li Y, Wu B, Gong X, Ngai T (2015) Investigation of cell behaviors on thermo-responsive PNIPAM microgel films. Colloid Surf B 132:202–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nash ME, Carroll WM, Nikoloskya N, Yang R, O’Connell C, Gorelov AV, Dockery P, Liptrot C, Lyng FM, Garcia A, Rochev YA (2011) Straightforward, one-step fabrication of ultrathin thermoresponsive films from commercially available pNIPAm for cell culture and recovery. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:1980–1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tsai H-Y, Vats K, Yates MZ, Benoit DSW (2013) Two-dimensional patterns of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels to spatially control fibroblast adhesion and temperature-responsive detachment. Langmuir 29:12183–12193CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil ProcessingChina University of Petroleum (East China)QingdaoChina
  2. 2.Center for Bioengineering and BiotechnologyChina University of Petroleum (East China)QingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations