Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 10, pp 7125–7137 | Cite as

Bacterial cell killing properties of silver-loaded polysiloxane microspheres

  • Urszula Mizerska
  • Rafal Halasa
  • Katarzyna Turecka
  • Julian Chojnowski
  • Piotr Pospiech
  • Witold Fortuniak
  • Stanislaw Slomkowski
  • Tomasz Makowski
  • Waldemar Machnowski
  • Przemyslaw Sowinski


Cross-linked polysiloxane microspheres containing a large number of SiOH groups were modified by introduction of organic thiol groups, which were further used for the functionalization of the microspheres with silver thiolate groups. The microspheres were characterized by 29Si MAS NMR, 13C MAS NMR, SEM, XPS and elemental analysis. They were tested as biocides against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains and exhibited high bactericidal activity. Separately, linear polysiloxane polymers equipped with organothiol groups and loaded with silver were synthesized. Their antibacterial activity was compared with that of silver thiolate-functionalized microspheres. Different shape of particles and a different form of silver explained somewhat lower activity of polymers.



The authors are grateful to Professor Hieronim Maciejewski from Poznan Science and Technology Park of Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation for kind offer of (3-mercaptopropyl)dimethylmethoxysilane and to Nicholas Beaumont for the improvement in language.


This study was funded by the Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Gdansk Medical University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Worley SD, Sun G (1996) Biocidal polymers. Trends Polym Sci 4:364–370Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kenawy ER, Worley SD, Broughton R (2007) The chemistry and applications of antimicrobial polymers: a state-of-the-art review. Biomacromol 8:1359–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hazziza-Laskar N, Helary G, Sauvet G (1995) Biocidal polymers active by contact. IV. Polyurethanes based on polysiloxanes with pendant primary alcohols and quaternary ammonium groups. J Appl Polym Sci 58:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mizerska U, Fortuniak W, Chojnowski J, Hałasa R, Konopacka A, Werel W (2009) Polysiloxane cationic biocides with imidazolium salt (ImS) groups, synthesis and antibacterial properties. Eur Pol J 45:779–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Prabhu S, Poulose EK (2012) Silver nanoparticles: mechanism of antimicrobial action, synthesis, medical applications, and toxicity effects. Int Nano Lett 2:32–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lara HH, Garza-Trevino EN, Ixtepan-Turrent L, Singh DK (2011) Silver nanoparticles are broad-spectrum bactericidal and virucidal compounds. J Nanobiotechnol 9:30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marambio-Jones C, Hoek EMV (2010) A review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials and potential implications for human health and the environment. J Nanopart Res 12:1531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A (2009) Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol Adv 27:76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malmsten L (2011) Antimicrobial and antiviral hydrogels. Soft Matter 7:8725–8736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lichter JA, Van Vliet KJ, Rubner MF (2009) Design of antibacterial surfaces and interfaces: polyelectrolyte multilayers as a multifunctional platform. Macromolecules 42:8573–8586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matsumura Y, Yoshikata K, Kunisaki S, Tsuchido T (2003) Mode of bactericidal action of silver zeolite and its comparison with that of silver nitrate. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4278–4281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kwakye-Awuah B, Williams C, Kenward MA, Radecka I (2008) Antimicrobial action and efficiency of silver-loaded zeolite X. J Appl Microbiol 104:1516–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sondi I, Salopek-Sondi B (2004) Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shim J, Choi K, Hirano S (2017) Oxidative stress and cytotoxic effects of silver ion in mouse lung macrophages J774.1 cells. J Appl Toxicol 37:471–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim JS, Kuk E, Yu K, Kim JH, Park SJ, Lee HJ, Kim SH, Park YK, Park YH (2007) Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine 3:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Danilczuk M, Lund A, Saldo J, Yamada H, Michalik J (2006) Conduction electron spin resonance of small silver particles. Spectrochim Acta Part A 63:189–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Windler L, Height M, Nowack B (2013) Comparative evaluation of antimicrobials for textile applications. Environ Int 53:62–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dastjerdi R, Montazer M, Shashavan S (2009) A new method to stabilize nanoparticles on textile surfaces. Colloid Surf A Physicochem Eng Aspects 345:202–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Percival SL, Bowler PG, Russell D (2005) Bacterial resistance to silver in wound care. J Hosp Infect 60:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yang W, Shen C, Ji Q, An H, Wang J, Liu Q, Zhang Z (2009) Food storage material silver nanoparticles interfere with DNA replication fidelity and bind with DNA. Nanotechnology 20:085102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Roldan MV, Frattini AL, Sanctis OA, Pellegrini NS (2007) Characterization and applications of Ag nanoparticles in waveguides. Appl Surf Sci 254:281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yin H, Yamamoto T, Wada Y, Yanagida S (2004) Large-scale and size-controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles under microwave irradiation. Mater Chem Phys 83:66–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yee MS-L, Khiew PS, Tan YF, Kok Y-Y, Cheong KW, Chiu WS, Leong CHO (2014) Potent antifouling silver-polymer nanocomposite microspheres using ion-exchange resin as templating matrix. Colloid Surf A Physicochem Eng Aspects 457:382–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Owen MJ (2000) Silicon-containing polymers the science and technology of their synthesis and applications. In: Jones RG, Ando W, Chojnowski J (eds) Dodrecht: Kluwer, p 213Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dastierdi R, Noorian SA (2014) Polysiloxane features on different nanostructure geometries; nano-wires and nano-ribbons. Colloid Surf A Physicochem Eng Aspects 452:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fortuniak W, Chojnowski J, Slomkowski S, Pospiech P, Kurjata J (2013) Route to hydrophilic, hydrophobic and functionalized cross-linked polysiloxane microspheres. Polymer 54:3156–3165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mizerska U, Fortuniak W, Pospiech P, Chojnowski J, Slomkowski S (2015) Gamma globulins adsorption on carbofunctional polysiloxane microspheres. J Inorg Organometal Polym Mater 25:507–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bell RA, Kramer JR (1999) Structural chemistry and geochemistry of silver–sulfur compounds: critical review. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:9–22Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Veronesi G, Aude-Garcia C, Kieffer I, Gallon T, Delange P, Herlin-Boime N, Rabilloud T, Carriere M (2015) Exposure-dependent Ag+ release from silver nanoparticles and its complexation in AgS2 sites in primary murine macrophages. Nanoscale 16:7323–7330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu J, Sonshine DA, Shervani S, Hurt RH (2010) Controlled release of biologically active silver from nanosilver surfaces. ACS Nano 4:6903–6913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Remya KP, Udayabhaskararao T, Pradeep T (2012) Low-temperature thermal dissociation of Ag quantum clusters in solution and formation of monodisperse Ag2S nanoparticles. J Phys Chem 116:26019–26026Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shen J, Jin B, Qi YCH, Jiang Q, Gao X (2017) Carboxylated chitosan/silver-hydroxyapatite hybrid microspheres with improved antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility. Mater Sci Eng C 78:589–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gutarowska B, Pietrzak K, Machnowski W, Danielewicz D, Szynkowska M, Konca P, Surma-Slusarska B (2014) Application of silver nanoparticles for disinfection of materials to protect historical objects. Curr Nanosci 10:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kulthong K, Srisung S, Boonpavanitchakul K, Kangwansupamonkon W, Maniratanachote R (2010) Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. Part Fibre Toxicol 7:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hałasa R, Turecka K, Orlewska C, Werel WJ (2014) Comparison of fluorescence optical respirometry and microbroth dilution methods for testing antimicrobial compounds. J Microbiol Methods 107:98–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fijolek HG, Grohal JR, Sample JF, Natan MJ (1997) A facile trans to gauche conversion in layered silver butane thiolate. Inorg Chem 36:622–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Badia A, Demers L, Dickinson L, Morin FG, Lennox RB, Reven L (1997) Gold–sulfur interactions in alkylthiol self-assembled monolayers formed on gold nanoparticles studied by solid-state NMR. J Am Chem Soc 119:11104–11105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cartenuto G, La Peruta G, Nicolas L (2006) Thermo-chromic materials based on polymer-embedded silver clusters. Sens Actuators B 114:1092–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ferraria AM, Carapeto AP, Botelho do Rego AM (2012) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: silver salts revisited. Vacuum 86:1988–1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Abd-El Aal AA, Tawfik SM, Shaban SM (2015) Simple one step synthesis of nonionic dithiol surfactants and their self-assembling with silver nanoparticles: characterization, surface properties, biological activity. Appl Surf Sci 342:144–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zheng Y, Cai C, Zhang F, Monty J, Linhardt RJ, Simmons TJ (2016) Can natural fibers be a silver bullet? Antibacterial cellulose fibers through the covalent bonding of silver nanoparticles to electrospun fibers. Nanotechnology 27:art.numb.055102Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hu M, Gu X, Hu Y, Deng Y, Wang Ch (2016) PVA/carbon dot nanocomposite hydrogels for simple introduction of Ag nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial activity. Macromol Mater Eng 301:1352–1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Amalric J, Mutin PH, Guerrero G, Ponche A, Sotto A, Lavigne J-P (2009) Phosphonate monolayers functionalized by silver thiolate species as antibacterial nanocoatings on titanium and stainless steel. J Mater Chem 19:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular StudiesPolish Academy of SciencesLodzPoland
  2. 2.Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy with Subfaculty of Laboratory MedicineMedical University of GdanskGdańskPoland
  3. 3.Department of Material and Commodity Sciences and Textile MetrologyLodz University of TechnologyLodzPoland

Personalised recommendations