Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 8, pp 6053–6064 | Cite as

Synergistic effect between carbon nanoparticle and intumescent flame retardant on flammability and smoke suppression of copolymer thermoplastic polyurethane

  • Changkun Chen
  • Xiaolong Zhao
  • Congling Shi
  • Jie Chen


Copolymer thermoplastic polyurethane (C-TPU) was extruded with intumescing flame-retardant formulations based on ammonium polyphosphate and macromolecular nitrogen phosphorus. Carbon nanofiber and carbon nanotube were used as the additional carbon source. The synergism effect of each additive and their intumescing combinations on C-TPU composites degradation, smoke suppression, flammability, and melt rheology was systematically investigated by thermogravimetric (TG), smoke density test and cone calorimeter test (CCT), etc. The TG results showed that carbon particles combined with IFR showed a notable improvement in thermostability at high temperature, and this intumescing flame-retardant system effectively catalyzed the decomposition of macromolecule volatiles that is the major source of smoke particles. This intumescing flame-retardant system also promoted the generation of compact and continual char layer, reduced the peak heat release rate by more than 80% and the smoke generation by 50% obtained from CCT. What is more, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that this flame-retardant system could promote the formation of a char layer with network structure which helps produce composites with superior flame retardant. A synergistic effect on enhancing the limit oxygen index (LOI) and restricting the dropping of the composites is also obtained. This study has a potential contribution to the development of carbon-based flame-retardant composites.



This study is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) through Grants 51576212, 51534008, and 51622403, and the National Key Research and Development Project of China through Grants 2016YFC0802501. The authors appreciate the supports deeply.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10853_2017_1970_MOESM1_ESM.docx (45 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 45 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Disaster Prevention Science and Safety Technology, Railway CampusCentral South UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Metro Fire and Passenger Transportation SafetyChina Academy of Safety Science and TechnologyBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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