Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 8, pp 6106–6115 | Cite as

Preparation and characterization of water-dispersible carbon black grafted with polyacrylic acid by high-energy electron beam irradiation

  • Qianlu Jiang
  • Songnan Wang
  • Shiai Xu
Energy materials


In this study, high-energy electron beam irradiation was used for the first time for graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto the surface of carbon black (CB) to prepare water-dispersible CB. The grafted CB was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that polyacrylic acid (PAA) has been successfully grafted onto the surface of CB. The particle size and dispersion stability of unmodified and modified CBs in aqueous solution were determined by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the grafted CB has smaller average aggregate size and better dispersion than unmodified CB. In addition, there is no significant difference in the grafting degree among grafted CBs prepared in nitrogen and air at different irradiation doses, indicating that oxygen and irradiation dose have a negligible effect on the grafting degree of PAA.



This research is financially supported by the Thousand Talents Program of Qinghai Province and Kunlun Scholar Award Program of Qinghai Province.


  1. 1.
    Donnet JB, Bansal RC, Wang MJ (1993) Carbon black: science and technology, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York. ISBN 082478975XGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    West DHD, Mcbrierty VJ, Delaney CFG (1979) A positron annihilation study of carbon black and carbon-black-filled polybutadiene. Appl Phys 18:85–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Iijima M, Yamazaki M, Nomura Y, Kamiya H (2013) Effect of structure of cationic dispersants on stability of carbon black nanoparticles and further processability through layer-by-layer surface modification. Chem Eng Sci 85:30–37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang W, Blackburn RS, DehghaniSanij AA (2009) Carbon black reinforced epoxy resin nanocomposites as bending sensors. J Compos Mater 43:367–376. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Francis LF, Grunlan JC, Sun J, Gerberich WW (2007) Conductive coatings and composites from latex-based dispersions. Colloids Surf A 311:48–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhu L, Lu Y, Wang Y, Zhang L, Wang W (2012) Preparation and characterization of dopamine-decorated hydrophilic carbon black. Appl Surf Sci 258:5387–5393. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhou X, Li Q, Wu C (2008) Grafting of maleic anhydride onto carbon black surface via ultrasonic irradiation. Appl Organomet Chem 22:78–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hauptman N, Gunde MK, Kunaver M, Bešter-Rogac M (2011) Influence of dispersing additives on the conductivity of carbon black pigment dispersion. J Coat Technol Res 8:553–561. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shi PW, Li QY, Li YC, Wu CF (2014) Preparation and characterization of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-decorated hydrophilic carbon blackby one-step in situ ball milling. Colloids Surf A 443:135–140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buttrya DA, Pengb JCM, Donnetb JB, Rebouillatc S (1999) Immobilization of amines at carbon fiber surfaces. Carbon 37:1929–1940. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Donnet JB, Rebouillat S, Wang TK, Peng J (1998) Carbon fibers, 3rd edn. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York. ISBN 0824701720Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen X, Farber M, Gao Y, Kulaots I et al (2003) Mechanisms of surfactant adsorption on non-polar, air-oxidized and ozone-treated carbon surfaces. Carbon 41:1489–1500. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li Q, Wu G, Ma Y, Wu C (2007) Grafting modification of carbon black by trapping macroradicals formed by sonochemical degradation. Carbon 45:2411–2416. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Itoh Y, Ozaki K, Maezawa R (2013) Hydrolyzable-emulsifier-containing polymer latices as dispersants and binders for waterborne carbon black paint. J Appl Polym Sci 130:3869–3873. Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tsubokawa N, Satoh T, Murota M, Sato S, Shimizu H (2001) Grafting of hyperbranched poly(amidoamine) onto carbon black surfaces using dendrimer synthesis methodology. Polym Adv Technol 12:596–602. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu T, Jia S, Tomasz Kowalewski A, Matyjaszewski K et al (2003) Grafting poly(n-butyl acrylate) from a functionalized carbon black surface by atom transfer radical polymerization. Langmuir 19:6342–6345. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reichmanis E, Nalamasu O, Houlihan FM, Novembre AE (2015) Radiation chemistry of polymeric materials: novel chemistry and applications for microlithography. Polym Int 48:1053–1059.<1053::AID-PI268>3.0.CO;2-T CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Iwata H, Nakanoya T, Morohashi H, Chen J et al (2006) Novel gas and contamination sensor materials from polyamide-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted carbon black. Sens Actuat B Chem 113:875–882. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Singh D, Singh NL, Qureshi A, Gavade C, Avasthi DK et al (2010) Electrical and thermal studies on the polyvinylchloride/carbon black composites induced by high energy ion beam. Integr Ferroelectr 117:85–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Trenikhin MV, Ivashchenko OV, Eliseev VS (2015) Electron microscopy investigation of structural transformation of carbon black under influence of high-energy electron beam. Fuller Nanotub Carbon Nanostruct 23:801–806. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sapinski M, Dehning B, Guerrero A, Meyer M, Kroyer T, Switzerland G, Carbon fiber damage in particle beam. In: Proceedings of HB2010, Morschach, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wu Y, Wen S, Shen J, Jiang J, Hu S, Zha L, Liu L (2015) Improved dynamic properties of natural rubber filled with irradiation-modified carbon black. Radiat Phys Chem 111:91–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sahoo BP, Naskar K, Dubey KA, Choudhary RNP, Tripathy DK (2013) Study of dielectric relaxation behavior of electron beam-cured conductive carbon black-filled ethylene acrylic elastomer. J Mater Sci 48:702–713. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ahmad A, Mohd DH, Abdullah I (2004) Electron beam irradiation of carbon black filled linear low-density polyethylene. J Mater Sci 39:1459–1461. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhou X, Li Y, Fang C, Li S, Cheng Y, Lei W, Meng X (2015) Recent advances in synthesis of waterborne polyurethane and their application in water-based ink: a review. J Mater Sci Technol 31:708–722. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bo Y, Cui J, Cai Y, Xu S (2016) Preparation and characterization of poly(methylmethacrylate) and poly(maleicanhydride-co-diallylphthalate) grafted carbon black through γ-ray irradiation. Radiat Phys Chem 119:236–246. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xu H, Cao Y, He X, Wu Y, Zhang Y, Wu C (2009) Influence of in situ grafting on the dispersion of carbon black in solvents and natural rubber. J Macromol Sci B 48:1190–1200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Socrates G (1994) Infrared characteristic group frequencies: tables and charts, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York. ISBN 0471852988Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee S, Lee H, Sim JH, Sohn D (2014) Graphene oxide/poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by γ-ray pre-irradiation on graphene oxide surface. Macromol Res 22:165–172. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ding W, Wang L (2014) Synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) grafted carbon black and its application for sensing ethanol. J Polym Res 21:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Li Q, Wu G, Zhang X, Wu C (2006) Preparation of poly(n-butyl acrylates) en-capsulated carbon black via ultrasonic irradiation initiating emulsion poly-merization. Polym J 38:1245–1250. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lu S, Duan M, Lin S (2003) Synthesis of superabsorbent starch-graft-poly(potassiumacrylate-co-acrylamide) and its properties. J Appl Polym Sci 88:1536–1542. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhu L, Zhang L, Tang Y, Yang J (2013) Synthesis and adsorption of organo-montmorillonite/poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent composite. Polym Polym Compos 21:21–26. Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ding W, Wang L, Yang Q et al (2013) Recent research progress on polymer grafted carbon black and its novel applications. Int Polym Proc 28:132–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Strzemiecka B, Voelkel A, Donate-Robles J, Martín-Martínez JM (2014) Assessment of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks by TGA-MS, XPS and inverse gas chromatography using statistical chemometric analysis. Appl Surf Sci 316:315–323. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu H, Wang S, Xiao Y, Li X (2016) Studies on the dispersity of polymethacrylate-grafted carbon black in a non-aqueous medium: the influence of monomer structure. J Mater Sci-Mater Electron 27:2022–2030. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bao Y, Huang J, Xue P, Wang J, Li Q, Wu C, Guo W (2011) Effect of pH-responsive on the dispersion of PVM/MA grafted carbon black in water and waterborne polyurethane. J Dispers Sci Technol 32:1459–1464. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and EngineeringEast China University of Science and TechnologyShanghaiChina
  2. 2.School of Chemical Engineering, Qinghai UniversityXiningChina

Personalised recommendations