Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 51, Issue 14, pp 7008–7015 | Cite as

Formation of submicrometer titanium carbide from a titanium dioxide encapsulated in phenolic resin

  • Hai-Peng Gou
  • Guo-Hua Zhang
  • Kuo-Chih Chou
Original Paper

Abstract

A novel synthesis process has been developed to produce high-purity and submicrometer titanium carbide powders from a titanium dioxide encapsulated in phenol resin. The precursor powders were produced by coating titanium dioxide powders with phenolic resin shells. Then the precursor powders were roasted at various temperatures from 1373 to 1873 K for 2 h in a flowing Ar atmosphere. The decomposed carbon from phenolic resin could be used to reduce TiO2. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were employed to characterize the phase composition, microstructure, and reaction mechanism. The phenol resin was decomposed completely into pyrolytic carbon below 1200 K. The pyrolytic carbon with high activities deposited on the surface of TiO2 powders evenly, which formed carbon shells and provided a close contact with TiO2 particles. γ-Ti3O5, λ-Ti3O5, Ti2O3, TiC x O y , and TiC were continuously formed during the carbothermic reduction. It is found that the titanium carbide powders with a lattice parameter of 4.311 Å were finally synthesized at 1873 K when the molar ratio of titanium dioxide to phenolic resin was 1:0.6. The particle size of the obtained titanium carbide powders was about 0.4 μm.

Keywords

TiO2 Titanium Carbide Carbothermic Reduction Titanium Dioxide Powder Carbon Shell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank for the financial supports from the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (FRF-TP-15-009A3).

References

  1. 1.
    Mihailescu IN, Chitica N, Teodorescu VS, Popescu M, De Giorgi ML, Luches A, Perrone A, Boulmer-Leborgne Ch, Hermann J, Dubreuil B, Udrea S, Barborica A, Iova I (1994) Direct carbide synthesis by multipulse excimer laser treatment of Ti samples in ambient CH4 gas at superatmospheric pressure. J Appl Phys 75:5286–5294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Razavi M, Rahimipour MR, Kaboli R (2008) Synthesis of TiC nanocomposite powder from impure TiO2 and carbon black by mechanically activated sintering. J. Alloys Compd 460:694–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Koc R, Folmer JS (1997) Carbothermal synthesis of titanium carbide using ultrafine titania powders. J Mater Sci 32:3101–3111. doi: 10.1023/A:1018634214088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khoshhal R, Soltanieh M, Boutorabi M (2014) Formation mechanism and synthesis of Fe-TiC/Al2O3 composite by ilmenite, aluminum and graphite. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 45:53–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Haialilou A, Hashim M, Nahavandi M, Ismail I (2014) Mechanochemical carboaluminothermic reduction of rutile to produce TiC-Al2O3 nanocomposite. Adv Powder Technol 25:423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yuan X, Cheng L, Kong L, Yin X, Zhang L (2014) Preparation of titanium carbide nanowires for application in electromagnetic wave absorption. J Alloys Compd 596:132–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Holt J, Munir Z (1986) Combustion synthesis of titanium carbide: theory and experiment. J Mater Sci 21:251–259. doi: 10.1007/BF01144729 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee D, Kim B (2003) Synthesis of nano-structured titanium carbide by Mg-thermal reduction. Scripta Mater 48:1513–1518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ghosh B, Pradhan S (2010) Microstructure characterization of nanocrystalline TiC synthesized by mechanical alloying. Mater Chem Phys 120:537–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chandra N, Sharma M, Singh DK, Amritphale S (2009) Synthesis of nano-TiC powder using titanium gel precursor and carbon particles. Mater Lett 63:1051–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thorne K, Ting S, Chu C, Mackenzie J, Getman T, Hawthorne M (1992) Synthesis of TiC via polymeric titanates: the preparation of fibres and thin films. J Mater Sci 27:4406–4414. doi: 10.1007/BF00541573 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gotoh Y, Fujimura K, Koike M, Ohkoshi Y, Nagura M, Akamatsu K, Deki S (2001) Synthesis of titanium carbide from a composite of TiO2 nanoparticles/methyl cellulose by carbothermal reduction. Mater Res Bull 36:2263–2275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Preiss H, Berger L-M, Schultze D (1999) Studies on the carbothermal preparation of titanium carbide from different gel precursors. J Eur Ceram Soc 19:195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koc R, Folmer JS (1997) Synthesis of submicrometer titanium carbide powders. J Am Ceram Soc 80:952–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hajalilou A, Hashim M, Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi R, Sarami N, Kanagesan S, Shohaei T (2014) Carbosilisiothermic reduction of rutile to produce nano-sized particles of TiC and its composite with SiO2. Metall Mater Trans B 45:1615–1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hong S-H, Åsbrink S (1982) The structure of γ-Ti3O5 at 297K. Acta Crystallogr Sect B: Struct Sci 38:2570–2576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fitzer E, Schaefer W, Yamada S (1969) The formation of glasslike carbon by pyrolysis of polyfurfuryl alcohol and phenolic resin. Carbon 7:643–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hajalilou A, Hashim M, Ebrahimi-Kahizsangi R, Ismail I, Sarami N (2014) Synthesis of titanium carbide and TiC-SiO2 nanocomposite power using rutile and Si by mechanically activated sintering. Adv Powder Technol 25:1094–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gao C, Jiang B, Cao Z, Huang K, Zhu H (2010) Preparation of titanium oxycarbide from various titanium raw materials: part I. carbothermial reduction. Rare Met 29:547–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Berger L, Jangholf E, Jaenicke-RÖβler K, Leitner G (1999) Mass spectrometric investigations on the carbothermal reduction of titanium dioxide. J Mater Sci Lett 18:1409–1412. doi: 10.1023/A:1006619306945 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Advanced MetallurgyUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center of Steel TechnologyUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations