Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 52, Issue 7, pp 3697–3718 | Cite as

Electrochemical in situ X-ray probing in lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

Batteries and Supercapacitors


In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), as a widely used tool in probing the structure evolution in electrochemical process as well as the energy storage and capacity fading mechanism, has shown great effects with optimizing and building better batteries. Based on the research progresses of in situ XRD in recent years, we give a review of the development and the utilization of this powerful tool in understanding the complex electrochemical mechanisms. The studies on in situ XRD are divided into three sections based on the reaction mechanisms: alloying, conversion, and intercalation reactions in lithium-ion batteries. The alloying reaction, in which lithium ions insert into Si, Sb, and Ge is firstly reviewed, followed by a discussion about the recent development of in situ XRD on conversion reaction materials (including metal oxides and metal sulfides) and intercalation reaction materials (including cathode materials and some structure-stable anode materials). As for sodium-ion batteries, we divide these researches on structure evolution into two categories: cathode and anode materials. Finally, the future development of in situ XRD is discussed.


MnO2 MoO3 MoS2 Cathode Material LiFePO4 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0202603), the National Basic Research Program of China (2013CB934103), the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (2013DFA50840), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51521001, 51272197, 51302203), the National Natural Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (51425204), the Hubei Province Natural Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (2014CFA035), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WUT: 2015-PY-2, 2016III001, 2016III002, 2016III003, 2016III004, and 2016III006).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and ProcessingWuhan University of TechnologyWuhanChina

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