Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 52, Issue 8, pp 4472–4482 | Cite as

Physical properties of Fe films electrodeposited on porous Al substrates

  • M. Mebarki
  • A. Layadi
  • M. R. Khelladi
  • A. Azizi
  • N. Tiercelin
  • V. Preobrazhensky
  • P. Pernod
Original Paper

Abstract

Two series of Fe thin films have been electrodeposited onto polycrystalline porous Al substrates using two baths: iron chloride (FeCl2) and iron sulfate (FeSO4). The texture, strain, and grain size values have been derived from X-ray diffraction experiments. Scanning electron microscopy has been employed for surface morphology. The magnetic properties were inferred from hysteresis curves that were obtained from a vibrating sample magnetometer; the external magnetic field was applied in different directions of the film plane and also perpendicular to the film. Hysteresis curves have been obtained at low temperatures (120 K (−153 °C) to room temperature). We investigate the effects of Al porosity, bath type, and deposition rate on physical properties of these Fe films. A correlation between the structural and magnetic properties is made. Different mechanisms responsible for the coercive field (H C) behavior have also been investigated.

Keywords

Deposition Rate FeCl2 Coercive Field Iron Sulfate Hysteresis Curve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Díaz SL, Calderón JA, Barcia OE, Mattos OR (2008) Electrodeposition of iron in sulphate solutions. Electrochim Acta 53:7426–7435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Su C, He F, Ju H, Zhang Y, Wang E (2009) Electrodeposition of Ni, Fe and Ni–Fe alloys on a 316 stainless steel surface in a fluorborate bath. Electrochim Acta 54:6257–6263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allongue P, Maroun F (2010) Electrodeposited magnetic layers in the ultrathin limit. MRS Bull 35:761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Izaki M (2010) Electrodeposition of iron and iron alloys. In: Schlesinger M, Paunovic M (eds) Modern electroplating, 5th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 309–326Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Park D-Y, Yoo BY, Kelcher S, Myung NV (2006) Electrodeposition of low-stress high magnetic moment Fe-rich FeCoNi thin films. Electrochim Acta 51:2523–2530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heinrich B, Purcell ST, Dutcher JR, Urquhart KB, Cochran JF, Arrott AS (1988) Structural and magnetic properties of ultrathin Ni/Fe bilayers grown epitaxiaiiy on Ag(001). Phys Rev 38:12879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Layadi A, Artman JO, Hall BO, Hoffman RA, Jensen CL, Chakrabarti DJ, Saunders DA (1988) FMR in evaporated single and multilayer thin Fe films. J Appl Phys 64(10):5760–5762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Celinski Z, Uquhart KB, Heinrich B (1997) Using ferromagnetic resonance to measure the magnetic moments of ultrathin films. J Magn Magn Mater 166:6–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rezende SM, Chesman C, Lucena MA, de Moura MC, Azevedo A, de Aguir FM (1999) Biquadratic coupling in sputtered Fe/Cr/Fe still in need of a new mechanism. J Appl Phys 85:5892–5894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sadashivaiah PJ, Sankarappa T, Sujatha T, Santoshkumar R, Rawat P Sarvanan, Bhatnagar AK (2010) Structural, magnetic and electrical properties of Fe/Cu/Fe films. Vacuum 85(3):466–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D’Orazio F, Gubbiotti G, Lucari F, Tassoni E (2002) Magnetic and structural properties of Fe/Al multilayers. J Magn Magn Mater 242–245:535–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ghebouli B, Chérif S-M, Layadi A, Helifa B, Boudissa M (2007) Structural and magnetic properties of evaporated Fe thin films on Si(111), Si(100) and glass substrates. J Magn Magn Mater 312:194–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mebarki M, Layadi A, Guittoum A, Benabbas A, Ghebouli B, Saad M, Menni N (2011) Structural and electrical properties of evaporated Fe thin films. Appl Surf Sci 257:7025–7029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mebarki M, Layadi A, Kerkache L, Benabbas A, Tiercelin N, Preobrazhensky V, Pernod P (2014) Effect of thickness and deposition rate on the structural and magnetic properties of evaporated Fe/Al thin films. J Supercond Nov Magn 27(8):1951–1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mebarki M, Layadi A, Kerkache L, Tiercelin N, Preobrazhensky V, Pernod P (2015) Surface morphology and magnetic properties of evaporated Fe/Si and Fe/glass thin films. Appl Phys A 120(1):97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen Gang, Cao Peng, He Yuehui, Shen Peizhi, Gao Haiyan (2012) Effect of aluminium evaporation loss on pore characteristics of porous FeAl alloys produced by vacuum sintering. J Mater Sci 47:1244–1250. doi: 10.1007/s10853-011-5771-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Osaka T (1999) Recent development of magnetic recording head core materials by plating method. Electrochim Acta 44(21):3885–3890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Park D-Y, Myung NV, Schwartz M, Nobe K (2002) Nanostructured magnetic CoNiP electrodeposits: structure-property relationships. Electrochim Acta 47:2893–2900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chiu A, Croll I, Heim DE, Jones RE Jr, Kasiraj P, Klassen KB, Simmons CDRG (1996) Thin-film inductive heads. IBM J Res Dev 40(3):283–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Andricacos PC, Robertson N (1998) Future directions in electroplated materials for thin-film recording heads. IBM J Res Dev 42(5):671–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Protsenko VS, Vasil’eva EA, Smenova IV, Baskevich AS, Danilenko IA, Konstantinova TE, Danilov FI (2015) Electrodeposition of Fe and composite Fe/ZrO2 coatings from a methanesulfonate electrolyte. Surf Eng Appl Electrochem 51:65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abd El Meguid EA, Abd El Rehim SS, Moustafa EM (2003) Electroplating of iron from alkaline gluconate baths. Thin Solid Films 443(1–2):53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hou XW, Liu SB, Yang SL, Li JP, Guo B (2013) Electrical and magnetic properties of electrodeposited Fe-based alloys used for thin film transformer. Sci China Technol Sci 56(1):84–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Svedberg EB, Mallett JJ, Bendersky LA, Roy AG, Egelhoff WF Jr, Moffat TP (2006) A structural study of electrodeposited Fe on n-GaAs (001). J Electrochem Soc 153(12):C807–C813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Motoyama M, Fukunaka Y, Sakka T, Ogatab YH (2006) Effect of surface pH on electrodeposited Ni films. J Electrochem Soc 153:C502–C508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lallemand F, Ricq L, Wery M, Berc¸ot P, Pagetti J (2004) The influence of organic additives on the electrodeposition of iron-group metals and binary alloy from sulfate electrolyte. Appl Surf Sci 228:326–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bhuiyan MS, Taylor BJ, Paranthaman M, Thompson JR, Sinclair JW (2008) Microstructure and magnetic properties of electrodeposited cobalt films. J Mater Sci 43:1644–1649. doi: 10.1007/s10853-007-2383-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sueyoshi T (1987) Morphology and porous texture of iron fine particles with relation to their magnetic properties. J Mater Sci 22:860–866. doi: 10.1007/BF01103521 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim D, Park D-Y, Yoo BY, Sumodjo PTA, Myung NV (2003) Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline iron group thin film alloys electrodeposited from sulfate and chloride baths. Electrochim Acta 48(7):819–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gundel A, Devolder T, Chappert C, Schmidt JE, Cortes R, Allongue P (2004) Electrodeposition of Fe/Au(1 1 1) ultrathin layers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Phys B 354(1–4):282–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zarpellon J, Jurca HF, Klein JJ, Schreiner WH, Mattoso N, Mosca DH (2007) Electrodeposition of Fe thin films on Si(1 1 1) surfaces in the presence of sodium saccharin. Electrochim Acta 53:2002–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jartych E, Zurawicz JK, Maczka E, Borc J (2001) Preparation of thin iron films by electrodeposition and characterization of their local magnetic properties. Mater Chem Phys 72(3):356–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jartych E, Chocyk D, Budzynski M, Jalochoski M (2001) Surface morphology and local magnetic properties of electrodeposited thin iron layers. Appl Surf Sci 180(3):246–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mebarki M, Layadi A, Khelladi MR, Azizi A, Tiercelin N, Preobrazhensky V, Pernod P (2016) Structural and magnetic properties of Fe films electrodeposited on Al substrates. Metall Mater Trans A 47:3677–3683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Qin Xu, Yang Yuhua, Jianjun Gu, Li Ziyue, Sun Huiyuan (2012) Influence of Al substrate on the optical properties of porous anodic alumina films. Mater Lett 74:137–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koji H, Furuta H, Sekiya K, Nitta N, Harigai T, Hatta A (2013) Increased CNT growth density with an additional thin Ni layer on the Fe/Al catalyst film. Diam Relat Mater 36:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brajpuriya R (2010) Low temperature noncollinear behavior in ultrathin Fe/Al multilayer structures. J Appl Phys 107:083914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Budevski E, Staikow G, Lorenz WJ (2000) Electrocrystallization: Nucleation and growth phenomena. Electrochim Acta 45(15–16):2559–2574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brice JC, Cundall JA, King AP (1966) Easy direction coercive force associated with domain wall motion in nickel-lron films. J Mater Sci 1:170–185. doi: 10.1007/BF00550105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Herzer Giselher (2005) Anisotropies in soft magnetic nanocrystalline alloys. J Magn Magn Mater 294(2):99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Min H-G, Kim S-H, Li M, Wedding JB, Wang GC (1998) Thickness dependent coercivity of ultrathin co films on rough substrates: Cu buffered Si(111). Surf Sci 400:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Mebarki
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Layadi
    • 3
  • M. R. Khelladi
    • 4
  • A. Azizi
    • 4
  • N. Tiercelin
    • 5
  • V. Preobrazhensky
    • 5
  • P. Pernod
    • 5
  1. 1.Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences ExactesUniversité A. MiraBejaiaAlgeria
  2. 2.Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique (CRTSE)MerveillesAlgeria
  3. 3.L.E.S.I.M.S, Département de PhysiqueUniversité Ferhat AbbasSétifAlgeria
  4. 4.Laboratoire de Chimie, Ingénierie Moléculaire et Nanostructures (LCIMN), Département de ChimieUniversité Ferhat Abbas-Sétif 1SétifAlgeria
  5. 5.Joint International Laboratory LEMAC-LICS, IEMN CNRS 8520PRES University Lille North of FranceVilleneuve d’AscqFrance

Personalised recommendations