Morphology, composition and electrochemistry of a nano-porous silicon versus bulk silicon anode for lithium-ion batteries
The volumetric energy density of today’s lithium-ion batteries is limited mostly by the graphitic carbon anode. Silicon is a promising replacement but its excessive volume expansion on lithiation limits its long-term cyclability performance. A nano-sized aluminium containing silicon, leached in acid, with a porous structure is shown to maintain its capacity higher than pure bulk silicon or nano-sized silicon by over 700 mAh/g. The capacity of leached silicon is maintained at 1400 mAh/g for more than 60 cycles. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been used to correlate the electrochemical performance with the materials' morphology and composition.
KeywordsScanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Graphitic Carbon Solid Electrolyte Interphase Silicon Material High Angle Annular Dark Field
This research is based upon work supported by DOE-EERE, as part of BATT, DE-AC02-05CH11231 under Award Number 6807148. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract DE-AC02-98CH10886. We thank Dr. Shailesh Upreti for providing the milled silicon sample. We also thank Qiyue Yin from Prof. Guangwen Zhou’s group for her help with TEM analysis, which was carried out in part at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704. And we thank Dr. Juergen T. Schulte and Jordi Cabana for their help with the NMR analysis.
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