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Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 52, Issue 5, pp 2534–2548 | Cite as

Creating three-dimensional (3D) fiber networks with out-of-plane auxetic behavior over large deformations

  • Amit Rawal
  • Vijay Kumar
  • Harshvardhan Saraswat
  • Dakshitha Weerasinghe
  • Katharina Wild
  • Dietmar Hietel
  • Martin Dauner
Original Paper

Abstract

Fiber networks with out-of-plane auxetic behavior have been sporadically investigated. One of the major challenges is to design such materials with giant negative Poisson’s ratio over large deformations. Here in, we report a systematic investigation to create three-dimensional (3D) fiber networks in the form of needlepunched nonwoven materials with out-of-plane auxetic behavior over large deformations via theoretical modeling and extensive set of experiments. The experimental matrix has encapsulated the key parameters of the needlepunching nonwoven process. Under uniaxial tensile loading, the anisotropy coupled with local fiber densification in networks has yielded large negative Poisson’s ratio (up to −5.7) specifically in the preferential direction. The in-plane and out-of-plane Poisson’s ratios of fiber networks have been predicted and, subsequently, compared with the experimental results. Fiber orientation was found to be a core parameter that modulated the in-plane Poisson’s ratio of fiber networks. A parametric analysis has revealed the interplay between the anisotropy of the fiber network and the out-of-plane Poisson’s ratio based upon constant volume consideration.

Keywords

Fiber Orientation Nonwoven Material Fiber Network Fiber Segment Needle Penetration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols

\( \bar{b} \)

Mean distance between the contacts

\( \bar{b}_{j} \)

Projection of \( \bar{b} \) on j direction

\( \bar{b}_{k} \)

Projection of \( \bar{b} \) on k direction

Cj

Mean force experienced by the microelement at contact point in direction j

Cjn, Cjp

Normal and tangential components of C j respectively

Ef

Fiber modulus

If

Area moment of inertia of the fiber

Kj, Kk

Directional parameters representing the projection of \( \bar{b} \) in directions j and k, respectively

ml

Proportion of free fiber length

mjj, mjk

Geometric coefficients associated with two component of deformation caused by T j in directions j and k, respectively

Tj

Total external load applied in direction j

V0

Initial volume of the nonwoven material

V

Volume of the nonwoven material under a defined level of applied strain

γ

Nonwoven volume expansion (contraction) coefficient

ɛjk

Transverse strain of nonwoven along k direction for the applied stress in direction j

ɛjl

Transverse strain of nonwoven along l direction for the applied stress in direction j

ɛjj

Longitudinal strain in nonwoven along j direction for the applied stress in direction j

δ, δaxial, δbend

Overall, axial and bending deformations of the fiber segment, respectively

\( \bar{\delta }_{jj} \), \( \bar{\delta }_{jk} \)

Statistical mean projection of the bending deflection of all microelements due to C jn in directions j and k, respectively

νjk, νjl

In-plane and out-of-plane Poisson’s ratios of nonwoven, respectively

ϕ, θ

In-plane and out-of-plane fiber orientation angles, respectively

Ω(θ, ϕ)

Probability density function

Ω(ϕ)

In-plane probability density function

Subscripts

j

Direction of the applied stress

ij

Nonwoven plane or in-plane orientation of fibers

jk

Plane perpendicular to the nonwoven plane and along the direction of applied stress (j)

jl

Plane mutually perpendicular to the nonwoven plane and along the direction of applied stress (j)

Notes

Acknowledgements

One of the authors (AR) wishes to acknowledge the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for the research fellowship for experienced researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM), Kaiserslautern, Germany and Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik, Denkendorf, Germany.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit Rawal
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Vijay Kumar
    • 4
  • Harshvardhan Saraswat
    • 5
  • Dakshitha Weerasinghe
    • 3
  • Katharina Wild
    • 3
  • Dietmar Hietel
    • 2
  • Martin Dauner
    • 3
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM)KaiserslauternGermany
  3. 3.Institut für Textil- und VerfahrenstechnikDenkendorfGermany
  4. 4.University of BoråsBoråsSweden
  5. 5.MLV Textile & Engineering CollegeBhilwaraIndia

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