Template-free synthesis of titania architectures with controlled morphology evolution
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Template-free synthesis of TiO2 architectures with controlled morphology evolution has been developed through solvothermal reaction in 1,4-dioxane. By simply varying the molar ratio of the concentrated HCl over Titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) from 0 to 5.0, series of morphologies including nanoparticle-built microspheres, nanoparticle-built microspheres decorated with nanorods, nanorod cauliflowers, and nanorod dendrites have been obtained. The influence of several key factors on the morphology control of TiO2 has been systematically investigated. These parameters include the mass (molar) ratio of HCl/TTIP, solvothermal reaction temperature and time, acid species (concentrated nitric acid), and solvent type (tetrahydrofuran and 1,3-dioxane). The mechanism for the formation of the TiO2 architectures with controlled morphology evolution has been discussed. The application of the TiO2 architectures as water splitting photocatalyst and lithium–ion battery anode has been demonstrated. And the corresponding structure–property correlation has been discussed.
KeywordsTiO2 Anatase Phase Rutile Phase Initial Discharge Capacity TiO2 Nanorods
This research is funded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (51103172), the Zhejiang Non-profit Technology Applied Research Program (2013C33190), the open Project of the Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science (20140138), and Ningbo Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials. The authors would like to thank Dr. Dingyi Tong for the help with sketch preparation and discussion.
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Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.