Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 1142–1152 | Cite as

A single-step direct hydrothermal synthesis of SrTiO3 nanoparticles from crystalline P25 TiO2 powders

Original Paper


In the study, strontium titanium (SrTiO3) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a single-step direct hydrothermal process under alkaline condition from crystalline P25 titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders and strontium hydroxide octahydrate (Sr(OH)2·8H2O) at 220°C. The samples obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), indicating that the products were highly crystalline cubic SrTiO3 nanoparticles. The lattice parameter, unit cell volume, and atomic position were refined by Highscore Plus and Maud program to determine the crystal structure parameters. The thermal field emission scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectrometer (FE-SEM-EDS) showed the samples prepared were cubic SrTiO3 nanoparticles with regular morphology. The fine morphologies and structures of SrTiO3 were investigated by field emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). The specific surface areas of samples were investigated by the BET method. As a comparison, SrTiO3 nanoparticles also were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The samples synthesized by hydrothermal method have bigger specific surface areas and smaller grain sizes than the sample synthesized by solid-state method. Big mole ratio Sr/Ti and short reaction time are helpful to produce small particles with large specific surface area. The reaction mechanism of the hydrothermal process was illustrated finally.


TiO2 Hydrothermal Process Barium Titanate Large Specific Surface Area Reaction Duration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 51402301) and the Qinghai Province Science and Technology Support Program (2015-GX-108A).

Supplementary material

10853_2015_9445_MOESM1_ESM.docx (598 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 43 kb)


  1. 1.
    Pandech N, Sarasamak K, Limpijumnong S (2015) Elastic properties of perovskite ATiO3 (A = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) and PbBO3 (B = Ti, Zr, and Hf): first principles calculations. J Appl Phys 117:174108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Uchiyama T, Nishibori M, Einaga H, Teraoka Y (2015) Formation of tetravalent Fe Ions in LaFeO3 perovskite through mechanochemical modification by ball milling. J Am Ceram Soc 98:1047–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li F, Wang L, Jin L, Lin D, Li J, Li Z, Xu Z, Zhang S (2015) Piezoelectric activity in Perovskite ferroelectric crystals. Ultrasonics Ferroelectr Freq Control 62:18–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yin S, Tian H, Ren Z, Wei X, Chao C, Pei J, Li X, Xu G, Shen G, Han G (2014) Octahedral-shaped perovskite nanocrystals and their visible-light photocatalytic activity. Chem Commun 50:6027–6030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zou F, Jiang Z, Qin X, Zhao Y, Jiang L, Zhi J, Xiao T, Edwards PP (2012) Template-free synthesis of mesoporous N-doped SrTiO3 perovskite with high visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity. Chem Commun 48:8514–8516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim J, Hwang DW, Kim HG, Bae SW, Lee JS, Li W, Oh SH (2005) Highly efficient overall water splitting through optimization of preparation and operation conditions of layered perovskite photocatalysts. Top Catal 35:295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jeon J-H (2004) Effect of SrTiO3 concentration and sintering temperature on microstructure and dielectric constant of Ba 1 − x Sr × TiO3. J Eur Ceram Soc 24:1045–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jayabal P, Sasirekha V, Mayandi J, Jeganathan K, Ramakrishnan V (2014) A facile hydrothermal synthesis of SrTiO3 for dye sensitized solar cell application. J Alloys Compd 586:456–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shen H, Song Y, Gu H, Wang P, Xi Y (2002) A high-permittivity SrTiO3-based grain boundary barrier layer capacitor material single-fired under low temperature. Mater Lett 56:802–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Park S, Kim S, Kim HJ, Lee CW, Song HJ, Seo SW, Park HK, Kim D-W, Hong KS (2014) Hierarchical assembly of TiO2–SrTiO3 heterostructures on conductive SnO2 backbone nanobelts for enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance. J Hazard Mater 275:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Subramanian V, Roeder RK, Wolf EE (2006) Synthesis and UV–visible-light photoactivity of noble–metal–SrTiO3 composites. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:2187–2193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang Q, Hisatomi T, Ma SSK, Li Y, Domen K (2014) Core/shell structured La-and Rh-codoped SrTiO3 as a hydrogen evolution photocatalyst in Z-scheme overall water splitting under visible light irradiation. Chem Mater 26:4144–4150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blennow P, Hansen KK, Wallenberg LR, Mogensen M (2007) Synthesis of Nb-doped SrTiO3 by a modified glycine-nitrate process. J Eur Ceram Soc 27:3609–3612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wold A, Dwight K (1990) Synthesis of oxides containing transition metals. J Solid State Chem 88:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Panthong P, Klaytae T, Boonma K, Thountom S (2013) Preparation of SrTiO3 Nanopowder via Sol-gel combustion method. Ferroelectrics 455:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yu H, Ouyang S, Yan S, Li Z, Yu T, Zou Z (2011) Sol-gel hydrothermal synthesis of visible-light-driven Cr-doped SrTiO3 for efficient hydrogen production. J Mater Chem 21:11347–11351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ashiri R (2015) A new sol–gel processing routine without chelating agents for preparing highly transparent solutions and nanothin films: engineering the role of chemistry to design the process. Philos Mag 95:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lin C-S, Hwang C-C, Huang T-H, Wang G-P, Peng C-H (2007) Fine powders of SrFe12O19 with SrTiO3 additive prepared via a quasi-dry combustion synthesis route. Mater Sci Eng B 139:24–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kumar V (1999) Solution-precipitation of fine powders of barium titanate and strontium titanate. J Am Ceram Soc 82:2580–2584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zheng J-Q, Zhu Y-J, Xu J-S, Lu B-Q, Qi C, Chen F, Wu J (2013) Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous Nd-doped SrTiO3 nanospheres and nanoplates. Mater Lett 100:62–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang N, Kong D, He H (2011) Solvothermal synthesis of strontium titanate nanocrystallines from metatitanic acid and photocatalytic activities. Powder Technol 207:470–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moghtada A, Ashiri R (2011) Nanocrystals of XTiO3 (X = Ba, Sr, Ni, BaxTi1 − x) materials obtained through a rapid one-step methodology at 50 °C. Ultrason Sonochem 26:293–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ashiri R, Moghadam AH, Ajami R (2015) Obtaining the highly pure barium titanate nanocrystals by a new approach. J Alloy Compd 648:265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kalyani V, Vasile BS, Ianculescu A, Buscaglia MT, Buscaglia V, Nanni P (2012) Hydrothermal synthesis of SrTiO3 Mesocrystals: single crystal to mesocrystal transformation induced by topochemical reactions. Cryst Growth Des 12:4450–4456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ashiri R, Nemati A, Ghamsari MS, Sanjabi S, Aalipour M (2011) A modified method for barium titanate nanoparticles synthesis. Mater Res Bull 46:2291–2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen D, Jiao X, Zhang M (2000) Hydrothermal synthesis of strontium titanate powders with nanometer size derived from different precursors. J Eur Ceram Soc 20:1261–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wei X, Xu G, Ren Z, Xu C, Shen G, Han G (2008) PVA-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of SrTiO3 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of RhB. J Am Ceram Soc 91:3795–3799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li H, Yin S, Wang Y, Sato T (2013) Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Fe2O3-sensitized SrTiO3 and its luminescent photocatalytic deNOx activity with CaAl2O4:(Eu, Nd) assistance. J Am Ceram Soc 96:1258–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang S, Liu J, Han Y, Chen B, Li X (2004) Formation mechanisms of SrTiO3 nanoparticles under hydrothermal conditions. Mater Sci Eng B 110:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ashiri R, Moghtada A, Shahrouzianfar A, Ajami R (2014) Low temperature synthesis of carbonate-free barium titanate nanoscale crystals: toward a generalized strategy of titanate-based perovskite nanocrystals synthesis. J Am Ceram Soc 97:2027–2031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ashiri R, Ajami R (2015) Sonochemical synthesis of SrTiO3 nanocrystals at low temperature. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 12(S2):E202–E206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang J, Bang JH, Tang CC, Kamat Prashant V (2010) Tailored TiO2–SrTiO3 heterostructure nanotube arrays for improved photoelectrochemical performance. ACS Nano 4:387–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Peng JM, Zhou Y, Wang H, Zhou HR, Cai SY (2015) Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of photocatalytically active SrTiO3 nanocrystals using anatase TiO2 with different facets as a precursor. CrystEngComm 17:1805–1812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Psiuk B, Szade J, Wrzalik R, Osadnik M, Wala T (2014) Milling-induced phenomena in SrTiO3. Ceram Int 40:6957–6961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen DR, Jiao XL, Zhang MS (2000) Hydrothermal synthesis of strontium titanate powders with nanometer size derived from different precursors. J Eur Ceram Soc 20:1261–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fuentes S, Zarate RA, Chavez E, Muñoz P, Díaz-Droguett D, Leyton P (2010) Preparation of SrTiO3 nanomaterial by a sol–gel-hydrothermal method. J Mater Sci 45:1448–1452. doi: 10.1007/s10853-009-4099-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Demirörs AF, Imhof A (2009) BaTiO3, SrTiO3, CaTiO3, and BaxSr1 − xTiO3 particles: a general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites. Chem Mater 21:3002–3007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu XY, McCandlish EF, McCandlish LE, Mikulka-Bolen Kate R, Ramesh F Cosandey, Rossetti GA Jr, Riman RE (2005) Single-crystal-like materials by the self-assembly of cube-shaped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) microcrystals. Langmuir 21:3207–3212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ahn KH, Lee Y-H, Kim M, H-s Lee Y-S, Youn J Kim, Lee Y-W (2013) Effects of surface area of titanium dioxide precursors on the hydrothermal synthesis of barium titanate by dissolution-precipitation. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:13370–13376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jr Eckert J O, Hung-Houston CC, Gersten BL, Lencka MM, Riman RE (1996) Kinetics and mechanisms of hydrothermal synthesis of barium titanate. J Am Ceram Soc 79:2929–2939CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process EngineeringChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Qinghai Institute of Salt LakesChinese Academy of SciencesQinghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations