Aluminum hydroxide multilayer assembly capable of extinguishing flame on polyurethane foam
- 854 Downloads
Polyurethane foam found in household furnishings and bedding creates a severe fire hazard, resulting in loss of life and property each year. In an effort to reduce the flammability of polyurethane foam, a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) coating, comprised of polyethylenimine and polyacrylic acid-stabilized aluminum hydroxide (ATH), was deposited onto foam using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. PEM coatings with and without incorporation of ATH were deposited and compared to assess the effectiveness of ATH on flame suppression. All recipes resulted in conformal coatings, maintaining the open cellular structure of the foam. Only three bilayers of PEI/PAA-ATH retained the shape of foam after exposure to a butane torch flame for 10 s. With six bilayers, the flame was extinguished, which prevented flashover. Cone calorimetry revealed that this 6 BL coated foam exhibited a 64 % reduction in peak heat release rate and a 44 % reduction in maximum average rate of heat emission. This work demonstrates an extraordinarily effective flame-retardant nanocoating that uses environmentally benign chemistry and relatively few deposition steps, prepared using LbL assembly.
KeywordsFoam Flame Retardant Heat Release Rate Aluminum Hydroxide Polyurethane Foam
The authors acknowledge Dr. Alexander Morgan at the University of Dayton Research Institute for cone calorimeter testing and helpful discussions. The authors further acknowledge the Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and the Microscopy and Imaging Center (MIC) for infrastructural support of this work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Karter MJ (2013) Fire loss in the United States during 2012. National Fire Protection Association, QuincyGoogle Scholar
- 2.Hull TR, Kandola BK (2009) Fire retardancy of polymers: new strategies and mechanisms. R Soc Chem, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 4.Grand AF, Wilkie CA (2000) Fire retardancy of polymeric materials. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- 6.Renner R (2004) Government Watch: EPA won’t regulate dioxin in sewage sludge. Environ Sci Technol 38:14–15Google Scholar
- 20.Huang G, Yang J, Gao J, Wang X (2012) Thin Films of Intumescent Flame Retardant-Polyacrylamide and Exfoliated Graphene Oxide Fabricated via Layer-by-Layer Assembly for Improving Flame Retardant Properties of Cotton Fabric. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:12355–12366Google Scholar
- 46.Kogel JE (2006) Industrial minerals and rocks: commodities, markets, and uses. Society for Mining, LittletonGoogle Scholar