Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 50, Issue 13, pp 4672–4682 | Cite as

Characterization and biocompatibility of a calcium-containing AZ31B alloy as a biodegradable material

  • Yu Kyoung Kim
  • Il Song Park
  • Kwang Bok Lee
  • Sook Jeong Lee
  • Tae Sung Bae
  • Min Ho Lee
Original Paper


Magnesium has attracted notability as a biodegradable material. Several studies have reported that magnesium containing calcium (Ca) had biosafety with higher mechanical properties. However, Mg–1Ca alloy showed non-uniform corrosion properties with bone. In this study, various Ca amounts were added to commercial magnesium alloy AZ31B to improve the corrosion resistance and microstructure. AZ31B billet was prepared by casting without Ca. The AZ31B alloy ingots were melted and recasted with Ca quantities at 1.5 and 2.5 wt%. Extrusion ingots were pressed out to a plate with thickness of 5 mm and width of 80 mm at 1650 °C. The microstructure of the alloy was observed by optical microscopy and SEM. The composition of the alloy was analyzed by EDX. To examine the corrosion properties, potentiodynamic polarization was used to measure the corrosion potential and current density. Osteoblast cells MC3T3-E1 were incubated with the samples to allow cell attachment and MTT assay. The microstructure of alloys was homogeneously distributed over the surface and observed phase boundary. Preliminary elemental analysis suggested that the second phases were Al2Ca and Mg2Ca. Grain refinement by extrude casting was obtained for AZ31B–xCa. The corrosion resistant of AZ31B–xCa by current density was greater than the AZ31B because the standard electrode potential of Mg phase was lower than Mg2Ca. In vitro studies showed that the reduction of corrosion resistance and mechanical ability of the magnesium alloy after addition of Ca were not correlated with bioactivity. In particular, AZ31B–1.5Ca had higher formation of biomimetic substances and lower cytotoxicity, even though it had more vulnerable mechanical properties than AZ31B. Based on this result, the effect of Ca ion on commercial alloy AZ31B, mechanical properties, and bioactivity as biodegradable implant were discussed.


Corrosion Resistance Magnesium Alloy Potentiodynamic Polarization Corrosion Current Density Nucleation Temperature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was financially supported by the ‘National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (Nos. 2011-0028709 and 2014R1A4A1005309),’ and Regional Strategic Industry project (2013-R0002274).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu Kyoung Kim
    • 1
  • Il Song Park
    • 2
  • Kwang Bok Lee
    • 3
  • Sook Jeong Lee
    • 4
  • Tae Sung Bae
    • 1
  • Min Ho Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Biodegradable Materials, Institute of Oral Bioscience and School of Dentistry (Plus BK21 Program)Chonbuk National UniversityJeonjuSouth Korea
  2. 2.Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials Development and Institute of Biodegradable MaterialsChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Institute of Biodegradable MaterialsChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of New Drug Discovery and DevelopmentChungnam National UniversityDaejeonRepublic of Korea

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