Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 1141–1149 | Cite as

Dielectric response and thermally stimulated depolarization current analysis of BaNd1.76Bi0.24Ti5O14 high-temperature microwave capacitors

  • Xiaohua Zhang
  • Li Zhang
  • Jie Zhang
  • Zhenkun Xie
  • Lixin Yuan
  • Zhenxing Yue
  • Longtu Li
Original Paper


Thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) measurements were carried out on BaNd1.76Bi0.24Ti5O14 microwave dielectric ceramics to investigate the relationship between depolarization effects and microwave loss. At microwave frequency, BaNd1.76Bi0.24Ti5O14 ceramics exhibit a high dielectric permittivity of 88, a Qf value of 8800 GHz, and a τ f value of +6.9 ppm/°C. The temperature dependence of dielectric properties indicates the loss value of 0.0015 at 1 MHz above 350 °C. Utilizing TSDC technique, the origins of different relaxations in BaNd1.76Bi0.24Ti5O14 ceramics were identified. Two TSDC relaxation peaks (peak A and peak B) are associated with trap charges and oxygen vacancies, respectively. Activation energies of the relaxation in the polarized specimens were also estimated from TSDC measurement results. Such defects significantly contribute to extrinsic loss.


Oxygen Vacancy Microwave Dielectric Property Relaxation Peak Trap Charge Thermally Stimulate Depolarization Current 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51302142, 51221291 and 51272125), the Landing Plan of Jiangxi Province (Grant No. KJLD14075), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2013M530620 and 2014T70078), and the Science Foundation of Jingdezhen (Grant No. 2013-1-4).


  1. 1.
    Soldatenkov O, Samoilova T, Ivanov A, Kozyrev A, Ginley D, Kaydanova T (2006) Nonlinear properties of thin ferroelectric film-based capacitors at elevated microwave power. Appl Phys Lett 89:232901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wu SP, Luo JH (2011) Mg-substituted ZnNb2O6–TiO2 composite ceramics for RF/microwaves ceramic capacitors. J Alloy Compd 509:8126–8129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kolar D, Gaberscek S et al (1981) Synthesis and crystal chemistry of BaNd2Ti3O10, BaNd2Ti5O14, Nd4Ti9O24. J Solid State Chem 38:158–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Varfolomeev MB, Kostomarov AS, Golubt sova VS et al (1988) The synthesis and homogeneity ranges of the phases Ba6–xLn8+2/3xTi18O54. Russ J Inorg Chem 33:607–612Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ohsato H, Ohhashi T, Nishigaki S et al (1993) Formation of solid solution of new tungsten bronzetype microwave dielectric compounds Ba6−xR8+2/3xTi18O54 (R = Nd and Sm, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1). Jpn J Appl Phys 32:4323–4328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pang LX, Wang H, Zhou D, Liu WH (2010) Sintering behavior and microwave dielectric properties of Ba6−3xNd8+2xTi18O54 (x = 2/3) ceramics coated by H3BO3–TEOS sol–gel. Mater Chem Phys 123:727–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pei J, Yue ZX, Zhao F, Gui ZL, Li LT (2007) Effects of silver doping on the sol–gel derived Ba4(Nd0.7Sm0.3)9.33Ti18O54 microwave dielectric ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 90:3131–3137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xia YD, Shi GH, Wu D, Liu ZG (2005) Dielectric characteristics and thermal stability of Ba6−3xNd8+2xTi18O54 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Thin Solid Films 472:208–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang XH, Ren W, Zhan XL, Wang Z, Shi P, Chen XF, Wu XQ, Yao X (2012) Structure and microwave dielectric properties of Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 thin films deposited on alumina substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Thin Solid Films 520:5141–5145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xia YD, Shi GH, Wu D, Liu ZG (2004) Dielectric properties of low loss Ba6−3xNd8−2xTi18O54 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition for microwave applications. J Electron Mater 33:1236–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Singh J, Kalghatgi AT, Parui J, Krupanidhi SB (2010) High-temperature dielectric response in pulsed laser deposited Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 thin films. J Appl Phys 108:054106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fu Z, Wu A, Vilarinho PM, Kingon AI, Wördenweber R (2007) Low dielectric loss BaNd2Ti5O14 thick films prepared by an electrophoretic deposition technique. Appl Phys Lett 90:052912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cho IS, Kim DW, Kim JR, Hong KS (2004) Low-temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of BaO·(Nd1−xBix)2O3·4TiO2 by the glass additions. Ceram Int 30:1181–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ko YN, Jung DS, Kim JH, Hong YJ, Kang YC (2011) Low-temperature sintering characteristics of nano-sized BaNd2Ti5O14 and Bi2O3–B2O3–ZnO–SiO2 glass powders prepared by gas-phase reactions. Mater Res Bull 46:2112–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fu Z, Vilarinho Paula M, Aiying Wu, Kingon Angus I (2009) Textured microstructure and dielectric properties relationship of BaNd2Ti5O14 thick films prepared by electrophoretic deposition. Adv Funct Mater 19:1–11Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee HJ, Kim JR, Lanagan MJ, Trolier-McKinstry S, Randall CA (2013) High-energy density dielectrics and capacitors for elevated temperatures: Ca(Zr, Ti)O3. J Am Ceram Soc 96:1209–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yoon SH, Randall CA, Hury KH (2010) Effect of acceptor (Mg) concentration on the resistance degradation behavior in acceptor (Mg)-doped BaTiO3 bulk ceramics: II. Thermally stimulated depolarization current analysis. J Am Ceram Soc 92:1766–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu WY, Randall CA (2008) Thermally stimulated relaxation in Fe-doped SrTiO3 systems: I. Single crystals. J Am Ceram Soc 91:3245–3250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu WY, Randall CA (2008) Thermally stimulated relaxation in Fe-doped SrTiO3 systems: II. Degradation of SrTiO3 dielectrics. J Am Ceram Soc 91:3251–3257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yoon SH, Randall CA, Hury KH (2010) Correlation between resistance degradation and thermally stimulated depolarization current in acceptor (Mg)-doped BaTiO3 submicrometer fine-grain ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 93:1950–1956Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Takeoka S, Morita K, Mizuno Y, Kishi H (2007) Thermally stimulated current (TSC) studies on resistance degradation of Ni-MLCC. Ferroelectrics 356:78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jeong J, Han YH (2006) Effects of Mn-doping on TSDC and degradation of BaTiO3. J Electroceram 17:1051–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    El Kamel F, Gonon P, Jomni F, Yangui B (2006) Thermally stimulated currents in amorphous barium titanate thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering. J Appl Phys 100:054107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yoon SH, Park JS, Kim SH, Kim DY (2013) Thermally stimulated depolarization current analysis for the dielectric aging of Mn and V-codoped BaTiO3 multi layer ceramic capacitor. Appl Phys Lett 103:042901CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaohua Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Li Zhang
    • 1
  • Jie Zhang
    • 1
  • Zhenkun Xie
    • 1
  • Lixin Yuan
    • 1
  • Zhenxing Yue
    • 1
  • Longtu Li
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Electronic EngineeringJingdezhen Ceramic InstituteJingdezhenChina

Personalised recommendations