Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 49, Issue 14, pp 5043–5055 | Cite as

Wood cell wall mimicking for composite films of spruce nanofibrillated cellulose with spruce galactoglucomannan and arabinoglucuronoxylan

  • Jasna S. StevanicEmail author
  • Kirsi S. Mikkonen
  • Chunlin Xu
  • Maija Tenkanen
  • Lars Berglund
  • Lennart Salmén
Article

Abstract

Two hemicelluloses (HCs), galactoglucomannan (GGM) and arabinoglucuronoxylan (AGX), and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) were isolated from spruce wood and used for the preparation of composite films containing high amounts of cellulose, i.e. 85 and 80 wt% of NFC, respectively. The films were prepared in two ways: (i) by the pre-sorption of HCs on NFC and (ii) by the mixing of components in the usual way. Pre-sorption was applied in an attempt to mimic the carbohydrate biosynthesis pattern during wood cell wall development, where HCs were deposited on the cellulose fibrils prior to lignification taking place. It was assumed that pre-sorption would result in a better film-forming as well as stronger and denser composite films. The mechanical, thermal, structural, moisture sorption and oxygen barrier characteristics of such composite films were tested in order to examine whether the performance of composite films prepared by pre-sorption was better, when compared to the performance of composite films prepared by mixing. The performance of composite films was also tested with respect to the HCs used. All the films showed quite similar barrier and mechanical properties. In general, stiff, strong and quite ductile films were produced. The moisture sorption of the films was comparably low. The oxygen barrier properties of the films were in the range of commercially used poly ethylene vinyl alcohol films. However, the pre-sorption procedure for the preparation of composite films resulted in no additional improvement in the performance of the films compared to the corresponding composite films that had been prepared using the mixing process. Almost certainly, the applied mixing process led to an optimal mixing of components for the film performance achieved. The GGM contributed to a somewhat better film performance than the AGX did. Indications were observed for stronger interactions between the GGM and NFC than that for the AGX and NFC.

Keywords

Lignin Composite Film Oxygen Permeability Moisture Sorption Wood Cell Wall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation are gratefully acknowledged for funding made through the Wallenberg Wood Science Center. The authors would like to thank Birger Sjögren for extraction of the AGX, Elina Mabasa Bergström for purifying the AGX, Ann Olsson and Fredrik Aldaeus for providing the carbohydrate analyses on the AGX, Kasinee Prakobna for procuring the NFC and for introducing the pre-sorption, mixing and film drying techniques, Johanna Persson for introducing the dialysis and lyophilisation techniques, Shoaib Azhar for introducing the carbohydrate analysis on the pre-sorbed composite material, Anders Mårtensson for providing the SEM micrographs on the xylan composite films and Kristina Junel for performing the oxygen permeability measurements.

References

  1. 1.
    Carpita N, McCann M (2000) The cell wall. In: Buchanan B, Gruissem W, Jones R (eds) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, pp 52–108Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bacic A, Harris PJ, Stone BA (1988) Structure and function of plant cell walls. In: Preiss J (ed) The biochemistry of plants. Academic Press, Inc., New York, pp 297–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Turbak AF, Snyder FW, Sandberg KR (1983) Microfibrillated cellulose, a new cellulose product: properties, uses and commercial potential. J Appl Polym Sci Appl Polym Symp 37:815–827Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Herrick FW, Casebier RL, Hamilton JK, Sandberg KR (1983) Microfibrillated cellulose: morphology and accessibility. J Appl Polym Sci Appl Polym Symp 37:797–813Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pääkkö M, Ankerfors M, Kosonen H, Nykänen A, Ahola S, Österberg M, Roukolainen J, Laine J, Larsson PT, Ikkala O, Lindström T (2007) Enzymatic hydrolysis combined with mechanical shearing and high-pressure homogenization for nanoscale cellulose fibrils and strong gels. Biomacromolecules 8:1934–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Henriksson M, Henriksson G, Berglund LA, Lindström T (2007) An environmentally friendly method for enzyme-assisted preparation of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) nanofibers. Eur Polym J 43:3434–3441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wilfför S, Rehn P, Sundberg A, Sundberg K, Holmbom B (2003) Recovery of water-soluble acetylgalactoglucomannans from mechanical pulp of spruce. Tappi J 2:27–32Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu C, Willför S, Sundberg K, Petterson C, Holmbom B (2006) Physico-chemical characterisation of spruce galactoglucomannan solutions: stability, surface, activity and rheology. Cellul Chem Technol 41:51–62Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dahlman O, Tomani P, Axegård P, Lundqvist F, Lindgren K (2007) Method for separating polymeric pentose from liquid/slurry. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Stockholm, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nisperos-Carriedo MO (1994) Edible coatings and films based on polysaccharides. In: Krochta JM, Baldwin EA, Nisperos-Carriedo MO (eds) Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, pp 305–336Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gröndahl M, Eriksson L, Gatenholm P (2004) Material properties of plasticized hardwood xylans for potential application of oxygen barrier films. Biomacromolecules 5:1528–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Höije A, Sternemalm E, Heikkinen S, Tenkanen M, Gatenholm P (2008) Material properties of films from enzymatically tailored arabinoxylans. Biomacromolecules 9:2042–2047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mikkonen KS, Heikkinen S, Soovre A, Peura M, Serimaa R, Talja AR, Helén H, Hyvönen L, Tenkanen M (2009) Films from oat spelt arabinoxylan plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol. J Appl Polym Sci 114:457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stevanic JS, Joly C, Mikkonen KS, Pirkkalainen K, Serimaa R, Rémond C, Toriz G, Gatenholm P, Tenkanen M, Salmén L (2011) Bacterial nanocellulose-reinforced arabinoxylan films. J Appl Polym Sci 122:1030–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mikkonen KS, Stevanic JS, Joly C, Dole P, Pirkkalainen K, Serimaa R, Salmén L, Tenkanen M (2011) Composite films from spruce galactoglucomannans with microfibrillated spruce wood cellulose. Cellulose 18:713–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stevanic JS, Bergström EM, Gatenholm P, Berglund L, Salmén L (2012) Arabinoxylan/nanofibrillated cellulose composite films. J Mater Sci 47:6724–6732. doi: 10.1007/s10853-012-6615-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aulin C, Gällstedt M, Lindström T (2010) Oxygen and oil barrier properties of microfibrillated cellulose films and coatings. Cellulose 17:559–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Henriksson M, Berglund LA, Isaksson P, Lindström T, Nishino T (2008) Cellulose nanopaper structures of high toughness. Biomacromolecules 9:1579–1585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ribe E, Lindblad MS, Dahlman O, Theliander H (2010) Xylan sorption kinetics at industrial conditions. Part 1. Experimental results. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 25:138–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eronen P, Junka K, Laine J, Österberg M (2011) Interaction between water-soluble polysaccharides and native nanofibrillar cellulose thin films. BioResources 6:4200–4217Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Köhnke T, Pujolras C, Roubroeks JP, Gatenholm P (2008) The effect of barley husk arabinoxylan adsorption on the properties of cellulose fibres. Cellulose 15:537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hannuksela T, Tenkanen M, Holmbom B (2002) Sorption of dissolved galactoglucomannans and galactomannans to bleached kraft pulp. Cellulose 9:251–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hartler N, Lund A (1962) Sorption of xylans on cotton. Sven Papperstidning 65:951–955Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hansson J-Å (1970) Sorption of hemicelluloses on cellulose fibres. Pt. 2 Sorption of glucomannan. Holtzforschung 24:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ishii T, Shimizu K (2001) Chemistry of cell wall polysaccharides. In: Hon DN-S, Shiraishi N (eds) Wood and cellulosic chemistry. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp 175–212Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ban W, van Heiningen A (2011) Adsorption of hemicellulose extracts from hardwood onto cellulosic fibres. I. Effects of adsorption and optimization factors. Cellul Chem Technol 45:57–65Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Svagan AJ, Azizi SMAS, Berglund LA (2007) Biomimetic polysaccharide nanocomposites of high cellulose content and high toughness. Biomacromolecules 8:2556–2563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Siró I, Plackett D (2010) Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials—a review. Cellulose 17:459–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rowell RM, Pettersen R, Han JS, Rowell JS, Tshabalala MA (2005) Cell wall chemistry. In: Rowell RM (ed) Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 35–74Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reid JSG (1997) Carbohydrate metabolism: structural carbohydrates. In: Dey PM, Harborne JB (eds) Plant biochemistry. Academic Press, London, pp 205–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Xu C, Leppänen A-S, Eklund P, Holmlund P, Sjöholm R, Sundberg K, Willför S (2010) Acetylation and characterization of spruce (Picea abies) galactoglucomannans. Carbohydr Res 345:810–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sundberg A, Sundberg K, Lillandt C, Holmbom B (1996) Determination of hemicelluloses and pectins in wood and pulp fibres by acid methanolysis and gas chromatography. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 11:216–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dahlman O, Jacobs A, Liljenberg A, Olsson AI (2000) Analysis of carbohydrates in wood and pulps employing enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent capillary zone electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A 891:157–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Olsson A-M, Salmén L (2004) The association of water to cellulose and hemicellulose in paper examined by FTIR spectroscopy. Carbohydr Res 339:813–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kosikova B, Joniak D, Hricovini M, Mlynar J, Zakutna L (1993) 1H and 13C NMR characterization of lignins from NSSC cooking with lignin additive. Holzforschung 47:116–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Åkerholm M, Salmén L (2001) Interactions between wood polymers studied by dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy. Polymer 42:963–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Iwata T, Indrarti L, Azuma J-I (1998) Affinity of hemicellulose for cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum. Cellulose 5:215–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bishop CT (1953) Crystalline xylans from straws. Can J Chem 31:793–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Salmén L, Olsson A-M (1998) Interaction between hemicelluloses, lignin and cellulose: structure–property relationships. J Pulp Pap Sci 24:99–103Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Olsson A-M, Salmén L (2004) The softening behaviour of hemicelluloses related to moisture. In: Gatenholm P, Tenkanen M (eds) ACS symposium series 864. Hemicelluloses: science and technology. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 184–197Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Back EL, Salmén NL (1982) Glass transitions of wood components hold implications for molding and pulping processes. Tappi 65:107–110Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    McHugh TH, Krochta JM (1994) Permeability properties of edible films. In: Krochta JM, Baldwin EA, Nisperos-Carriedo MO (eds) Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, pp 139–187Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sothornvit R, Krochta JM (2000) Oxygen permeability and mechanical properties of films from hydrolyzed whey protein. J Agric Food Chem 48:3913–3916CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jasna S. Stevanic
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Kirsi S. Mikkonen
    • 2
  • Chunlin Xu
    • 3
    • 4
  • Maija Tenkanen
    • 2
  • Lars Berglund
    • 4
  • Lennart Salmén
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.INNVENTIA AB, Fibre and Material ScienceStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of Food and Environmental SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Process Chemistry Centre, Laboratory of Wood and Paper ChemistryÅbo Akademi UniversityTurku/ÅboFinland
  4. 4.Wallenberg Wood Science CenterThe Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations