Reverse polarity effect and cross-solder interaction in Cu/Sn–9Zn/Ni interconnect during liquid–solid electromigration
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The diffusion behavior of Zn atoms and Cu–Ni cross-solder interaction in Cu/Sn–9Zn/Ni interconnects during liquid–solid electromigration were investigated under a current density of 5.0 × 103 A/cm2 at 230 °C. Under the combined effect of chemical potential gradient and electron wind, Zn atoms with positive effective charge number would directionally diffuse toward the Cu interface under both flowing directions of electrons. When electrons flowed from Cu substrate to Ni substrate, EM significantly enhanced the diffusion of Cu atoms to the opposite Ni interface, resulting in the formation of interfacial Cu5Zn8; while no Ni atoms diffused to the opposite Cu interface. When electrons flowed from Ni substrate to Cu substrate, only a small amount of Cu atoms diffused to the opposite Ni interface, resulting in the formation of a thin interfacial (NiCu)3(SnZn)4 (containing 3 wt% Cu); EM significantly accelerated the diffusion of Ni atoms to the Cu interface, resulting in the formation of a large amount of (NiCu)3(SnZn)4 at the Cu interface. Even under downwind diffusion, no apparent consumption of Cu substrate was observed due to the formation of a thick and dense Cu5Zn8 layer at the Cu interface. It is more damaging with electrons flowing from Ni to Cu than that from Cu to Ni.
KeywordsSolder Joint SnZn Liquid Solder Chemical Potential Gradient Electron Wind Force
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 51171036 and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20120041120038.
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