Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 47, Issue 14, pp 5517–5523 | Cite as

Toughening mechanisms in poly(lactic) acid reinforced with TEMPO-oxidized cellulose



The mechanical properties of poly(lactic) acid (PLA) were modified by the addition of small amounts of cellulose, prepared from the mechanical disintegration of birch Kraft pulp following oxidation of the primary alcohol groups mediated by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO). The TEMPO-fibrillated cellulose (TOFC) was subsequently acetylated in acetic anhydride to degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.4 and 0.6 to enhance the compatibility between the polar cellulose and the non-polar polymer. The fracture behaviour of tensile specimens prepared from PLA film containing weight fractions of 1, 2 and 5 % of TOFC was considerably altered. The strain-to-failure of PLA modified by the incorporation of 1 wt% TOFC acetylated to a DS of 0.6 increased approximately 25-fold and the work of fracture by order of magnitude. The increase in the fracture properties were, nevertheless, accompanied by a reduction in Young’s modulus of around 60 % at both DS levels. At the higher TOFC addition levels, no toughening was observed, with the strains-to-failure and works of fracture both decreasing compared to pure PLA film. On the other hand, the Young’s modulus and tensile strength of films prepared from PLA incorporating TOFC esterified to a DS of 0.6 was found to be greater than that of pure PLA film. Possible mechanisms explaining the increase in toughness at 1 wt% are postulated.


Bacterial Cellulose Kenaf Cold Drawing Sodium Carboxylate Primary Alcohol Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank the Academy of Finland (decision number 127609) for financial support. The authors are also grateful to Rita Hatakka for recording the FT-IR spectra and many thanks are due to Tuomas Hänninen for providing TEMPO-oxidized fibrillated cellulose.

Supplementary material

10853_2012_6443_MOESM1_ESM.doc (47 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 47 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical TechnologyAalto UniversityAaltoFinland

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