Conductive carbon black-filled ethylene acrylic elastomer vulcanizates: physico-mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties
The effect of conductive carbon black (CCB) on the physico-mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties have been investigated by various characterization techniques. Physico-mechanical properties of the vulcanizates were studied with variation of filler loading, which revealed that the tensile strength increased up to 20 phr (parts per hundred rubber) CCB loading, whereas at higher filler loading it decreased marginally. Furthermore, tensile modulus, tear strength, and hardness gradually increased with increase in filler loading. The compression set and abrasion loss decreased with increasing CCB loading. The bound rubber content (Bdr) of unvulcanized rubber was found to increase significantly with increasing CCB content. The crosslink density increased, whereas the swelling decreased with CCB loading. The thermal stability of the vulcanizates evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed a minor increment with increase in CCB content. It is observed from the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) that the storage modulus (E′), loss modulus (E″), and glass transition temperature (T g) of ethylene acrylic elastomer (AEM) matrix increased by incorporation of CCB. The dielectric relaxation characteristics of AEM vulcanizates such as dielectric permittivity (ε′), electrical conductivity (σ ac), and electric moduli (M′ and M″) have been studied as a function of frequency (101 to 106 Hz) at different filler loading. The variation of ε′ with frequency and filler loading was explained based on the interfacial polarization of the fillers within a heterogeneous system. The ε′ increased with increasing the CCB loading and it decreased with applied frequency. The frequency dependency of σ ac was investigated using conduction path theory and percolation threshold limit. The σ ac increased with increase in both CCB concentration and applied frequency. The M′ increased with applied frequency, however, it decreased above 30 phr filler. The M″ peak shifted towards higher frequency region and above 20 phr filler loading the peaks were not observed within the tested frequency region. The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMISE) was studied in the X-band frequency region (8–12 GHz), which significantly improved with increase in CCB loading.
KeywordsCrosslink Density Filler Loading Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis Electric Modulus Rubber Matrix
The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the financial assistance supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), India to carry out the research work. Contract grant sponsor: Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Mumbai, India; contract grant number: 2008/35/8/BRNS/3096 dated 23/03/2009
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