Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 46, Issue 14, pp 4826–4831 | Cite as

Diverse effects of microwave heating on anatase crystallization in ionothermal synthesis of nanostructured TiO2

  • Yen Hui Liu
  • Po-I Liu
  • Li-Ching Chung
  • Hsin Shao
  • Meng-Shun Huang
  • Ren-Yang Horng
  • Shuh Woei Yu
  • Arnold Chang-Mou Yang
  • Min-Chao Chang


This article examines anatase crystallization in the ionothermal synthesis [sol gel method in the presence of ionic liquid (IL)] of nanostructured TiO2 under microwave (MW) irradiation. MW heating can lead to rapid temperature increase of chemical reactions. In this study, we found that rapid temperature increasing effects on anatase crystallization were diverse and dependent on initial water concentration, MW irradiation time, and IL concentration. The results indicated that higher anatase crystallinity was obtained at high water amount irrespective of IL concentration. However, at lower water amounts, higher anatase crystallinity occurred only when MW heating was applied after the mixtures reacted for certain duration, especially at lower initial temperature and at a specific IL concentration. Different MW heating effects on the hydrolysis–condensation reaction and the post-treatment stage under MW/IL conditions can explain this diversity. Heating characteristics of IL/water mixtures under MW irradiation were also discussed.


TiO2 Ionic Liquid Nanostructured TiO2 Anatase Crystallinity Ionic Liquid Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yen Hui Liu
    • 2
  • Po-I Liu
    • 1
  • Li-Ching Chung
    • 1
  • Hsin Shao
    • 1
  • Meng-Shun Huang
    • 1
  • Ren-Yang Horng
    • 1
  • Shuh Woei Yu
    • 3
  • Arnold Chang-Mou Yang
    • 2
  • Min-Chao Chang
    • 1
  1. 1.Green Energy and Environment Research LaboratoriesIndustrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI)HsinchuTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational Tsing Hua UniversityHsinchuTaiwan
  3. 3.The Graduate Institute of Environmental EngineeringNational Central UniversityJhongli CityTaiwan

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