Phase transition and mechanical properties of constraint-aged Ni–Mn–Ga–Ti magnetic shape memory alloy
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Ni–Mn–Ga Heusler-type ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are attractive materials for micro-actuator, but the relatively poor ductility and low strength of Ni–Mn–Ga alloys have triggered a great deal of interest. In this study, we attempt to introduce some ductile second phase in the alloy by partially substituting Ti for Ga and constraint aging treatment. The results show that the martensitic transformation temperature first decreases and then increases slightly with the increasing of constraint-aging temperature, which can be attributed to the decrease of Ni content in the matrix and strengthening effect of the second particles. It is found that the amount of the Ni-rich precipitates by constraint-aged samples is more and the size of the second phase particle is smaller than that of the free-aged samples. The compressive stress and ductility can be significantly improved by the constraint-aging treatment, and the maximum compressive stress for constraint-aging alloy is about 1400 MPa, which is the highest value up to date compared with the 400 MPa in solution-treated Ni–Mn–Ga–Ti alloy and about 900 MPa in Ni–Mn–Ga–Ti alloy free-aged at 1073 K for 3 h. Scanning electron microscopy observations of fracture surfaces confirm that the Ni-rich second phase play a key role in improving the compression stress and ductility of Ni–Mn–Ga–Ti alloy.
KeywordsCompressive Strength Shape Memory Alloy Aging Temperature Ni3Ti Martensitic Transformation Temperature
This study is supported by Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 20100481218) and Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 50601006, 20973028).
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