Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 1890–1901 | Cite as

Studies on the friction and wear characteristics of rubber-based friction materials containing carbon and cellulose fibers



The present study was an attempt to examine the effects of carbon and cellulose fibers on the tribological characteristics of rubber-based friction materials (RBFMs). A fiber free RBFM as a reference material and a series of fiber included RBFMs at different volume fractions were prepared by two-roll mill. The friction tests were performed at different sliding velocities and various drum temperatures. The mechanical properties and surface microstructure of friction specimens were also examined. It was revealed that the carbon fiber influences slightly the coefficient of friction (COF) of RBFM but it improves the wear resistance and the fade behavior considerably. It reduces the drum temperature as well. Cellulose fiber though offered high COF but it proved to be destructive from the fade behavior and wear rate point of view due to its weak thermal stability. It was found that the rubber-to-glass transition, which occurred at high sliding velocities, influences the COF, wear rate, and fade behavior of the RBFMs significantly for both fiber free and fiber-containing systems.


Carbon Fiber Wear Rate Wear Surface Cellulose Fiber Friction Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful for financial support of the Railway Research Center of Iran in this research work.


  1. 1.
    Friedrich K, Schlarb AK (2008) In: Briscoe BJ, Sinha SK (eds) Tribological applications of polymers and their composites: past, present and future prospects. Engineering series, vol 55. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim SJ, Jang H (2000) Tribol Int 33:477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yi G, Yan F (2007) Wear 262:121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bijwe J (1997) Polym Compos 18:378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gopal P, Dharani LR, Blum FD (1994) Wear 174:119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rhee SK, Jacko MG, Tsang PHS (1991) Wear 146:89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Adelmann JC (1976) US Patent 3959194Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Littlefield JB (1982) US Patent 4313869Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abbasi F, Shojaei A, Katbab A (2001) J Appl Polym Sci 81:363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gibson PA (1996) In: IMechE seminar publication in railway traction and braking, pp 75–85Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ludema KC (1996) Friction, wear, lubrication, 1st edn. CRC Press Inc, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bijwe J, Nidhi MN, Satapathy BK (2005) Wear 259:1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dureja N, Bijwe J, Gurunath PV (2009) J Reinf Plast Compos 28(4):489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ho SC, Chern Lin JH, Ju CP (2005) Wear 258:861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Satapathy BK, Bijwe J (2004) Wear 257:573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chang HW (1983) Wear 85:81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Giltrow JP, Lancaster JK (1970) Wear 16:359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bijwe J, Tewari US (1989) Wear 132:247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gopal P, Dharani LR, Blum FD (1995) Wear 181–183:913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shojaei A, Fahimian M, Derakhshandeh B (2007) Compos Sci Technol 67:2665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haddadi E, Abbasi F, Shojaei A (2005) J Appl Polym Sci 95:1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saffar A, Shojaei A, Arjmand M (2010) Wear 269:145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lancaster JK (1968) J Phys D 1:549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gopal P, Dharani LR, Blum FD (1996) Wear 193:199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Male J (1984) Diesel Engine Supt 62:47Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Qu X, Zxang L, Ding H, Liu G (2004) Polym Compos 25(1):94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Astrom BT (1997) Manufacturing of polymer composites, 1st edn. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Agarwal BD, Broutman LJ (1990) Analysis and performance of fiber composite. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Satapathy BK, Bijwe J (2006) Composites A 37:1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nicholson G (1995) Facts about Friction. P & W Price Enterprise Inc., Gedoran America Limited, WinchesterGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Griffith AM (1980) US Patent 4217255Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    UIC code 541-4 OR (1990) Brakes with composition brake blocks, 2nd edn. International Union of RailwaysGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Steinmann HW (1985) In: Lewin M, Pearce EM (eds) Proceedings of international fiber science and technology, vol 4, series 7. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1001–1078Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Friedrich K, Schlarb AK (2008) In: Chang L, Zhang Z, Ye L, Friedrich K (eds) Synergistic effects of nano particles and traditional tribo-fillers on sliding wear of polymeric hybrid composites. Engineering series, vol 55. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 35–58Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Friedrich K, Schlarb AK (2008) In: Bahadur S, Shwartz CJ (eds) The influence of nanoparticle fillers in polymer matrices on the formation and stability of transfer film during wear. Engineering series, vol 55. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 17–33Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ott M, Spvrling HM, Grafflin MW (1954) Chemical nature of cellulose and its derivatives in cellulose and cellulose derivative. Part I. Interscience, New York, pp 140–167Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Satapathy BK, Bijwe J (2005) J Reinf Plast Compos 24(6):579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dwyer-Joyce RS, Sayles RS, Ioannides E (1994) Wear 175:133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stachowiak GB, Stachowiak GW (2001) Wear 249:201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang M, Kang Q, Pan N (2008) J Appl Therm Eng 29:418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Li H, Jacob KI, Wong CP (2003) IEEE Trans Adv Packag 26:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Herring JM (2005) SAE Trans 670146:558Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Anderson AE (1990) In: ASM hand book, vol 18. ASM Materials Information Society, Metals Park, pp 569–577Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wirth A, Eggleston D, Whitaker R (1994) Wear 179:75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shojaei A, Faghihi M (2010) Polym Adv Technol 21:356Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Derakhshandeh B, Shojaei A, Faghihi M (2008) J Appl Polym Sci 108:3808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Blanco C, Bermejo J, Marsh H, Mendenez R (1997) Wear 213:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Petroleum EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations