Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 1814–1823 | Cite as

Study of curing process of glass fiber and epoxy resin composite by FT-NIR, photoacoustic spectroscopy and luminescence spectroscopy

  • R. C. M. Sales
  • M. F. Diniz
  • R. C. L. Dutra
  • G. P. Thim
  • D. Dibbern-Brunelli
Article

Abstract

This article investigates the application of the luminescence spectroscopy technique in steady-state conditions to study the glass fiber–epoxy F155 prepreg. The study was conducted by comparing the results obtained from the intrinsic fluorescence with the data obtained by application of Fourier Transform Near Infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) and photoacoustic spectroscopy in the medium infrared spectroscopy (PAS) to the same material. Extrinsic fluorescence of 9-anthroic acid (9-AA) was also used. Infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform the medium region (FT-IR) was also used to characterize the epoxy resin. Prepregs containing 9-AA or not were heat treated at 121 °C (F-155) for 360 min at a 2 °C/min heating rate. The results obtained by both methods indicated that the cross-linking reaction can be monitored by analyzing the spectrometric changes of the emission bands of the prepreg and 9-AA. The intrinsic emission at 368 nm was used to calculate the conversion degree. The photophysical behavior of 9-AA probe indicated a reduction of free volume of the polymeric matrix with curing process.

Keywords

Epoxy Group Cure Process Diuron Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Intrinsic Luminescence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of this study by Research Support Foundation of São Paulo State-FAPESP (Brazil). R. C. M. S. is indebted to Training Coordination of High Level Staff-CAPES (Brazil) for a fellowship.

References

  1. 1.
    Abraham D, Mciihagger R (1998) Comp Part A Appl Sci Manuf 29A 7:811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akay M (1990) Comp Sci Technol 38:359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alía JM, Edwards HGM, Navarro FJG (2001) J Mol Struct 597:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baselga J, Pozuelo J (2003) J Mater Process Technol 143–144:332Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bondzic S, Hodgkin J, Krstina J, Mardel J (2006) J Appl Polym Sci 100:2210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carrasco F, Pagès P, Lacorte T, Briceño K (2005) J Appl Polym Sci 98:1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chew MYL, Goh SH, Kang LH, Tan N (1999) Build Environ 34:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chike KE, Myrick ML, Lyon RE, Angel SM (1993) Appl Spectroc 47:1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dai Z, Li Y, Yang S, Zong C, Lu X, Xu J (2007) J Appl Polym Sci 106:1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Damian C, Espuche E, Escoubes M (2001) Polym Degrad Stab 72:447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dang W, Sung NH (1994) Polym Eng Sci 34:707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Delor-Jestin F, Drouin D, Cheval PY, Lacoste J (2006) Polym Degrad Stab 91:1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dubois C, Monney L, Bonnet N, Chambaudet A (1999) Composites A 30:361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Federolf HA, Eyerer P, Mebus C, Möginger B, Jin R, Scheer W (1999) J Polym Eng 19:265Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fedkte M, Domaratius F, Walter K, Pfitzmann A (1993) Polym Bull 31:420Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fischer A, Schlothauer K, Pfitzmann A, Spèvácek J (1992) Polymer 33:1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Galy J, Gulino D, Pascault JP (1987) Makromol Chem 188:7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gojny FH, Schulte K (2004) Comp Sci Technol 64:2303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gong B, Li X, Wang F, Chang X (2000) Talanta 52:217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    González-Benito J (2003) J Colloid Interface Sci 267:326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hakala K, Vantaparast R, Shuyan L, Peinado C, Bosch P, Catalina F, Lemmetyinen H (2000) Macromolecules 33:5954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hepburn DM, Kemp IJ, Cooper JM (2000) Polym Degrad Stab 70:245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hong SG, Wu CS (1998) Therm Acta 316:167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huang L, Wang C, Lu Y (2008) J Reinf Plast Comp 27:725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Khurana P, Aggarwal S, Narula AK, Choudhary V (2002) J Appl Polym Sci 87:1345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lachenal G, Pierre A, Poisson N (1996) Micron 27:329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lachenal G, Pierre A, Poisson N (1996) Micron 27:329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Luda MP, Balabanovich AI, Zanetti M, Guaratto D (2007) Polym Degrad Stab 92:1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Luo Y, Li Z, Lan W (2007) Mater Sci Eng B 139:105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miller KE, Krueger RH, Torkelson JM (1995) J Polym Sci B Polym Phys 33:2343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Momiji I, Yoza C, Matsui K (2000) J Phys Chem 104:1552Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Monney L, Belali R, Vebrel J, Dubois C, Chambaudet A (1998) Polym Degrad Stab 62:353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Musto P, Mascia L, Ragosta GP, Scarinzi G, Villano P (2000) Polymer 41:565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Musto P, Mascia L, Ragosta G, Scarinzi G, Villano P (2000) Polymer 41:565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Olmos D, Aznar AJ, Baselga J, González-Benito JJ (2003) J Colloid Interface Sci 267:117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Olmos D, Aznar AJ, González-Benito J (2005) Polym Test 24:275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Paik HJ, Sung NH (1994) Polym Eng Sci 34:1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pekcan Ö, Yilmaz Y, Okay O (1997) Polymer 38:1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Poisson N, Lachenal G, Sautereau H (2000) Vib Spectrosc 12:565Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Prepreg data sheets (2005) Hexcel, Pleasanton, CA. http://www.hexcel.com. Accessed 09 April 2008
  41. 41.
    Rigail-Cedeño A, Sung CSP (2005) Polymer 46:9378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rigail-Cedeño A, Sung CSP (2005) Polymer 46:9378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sales RCM, Dibbern-Brunelli D (2005) Mater Res 8:299Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sales RCM, Diniz MF, Dutra RCL, Thim GP, Dibbern-Brunelli D (2010) J Appl Polym Sci 117:664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sewell GJ, Billingham NC, Kozielski KA, George GA (2000) Polymer 41:2113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sheludyakova L, Sobolev EV, Arbuznikov AC, Burgina EB, Kozhevina LI (1997) J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 93:1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shim SB, Seferis JC, Eom YS, Shim YT (1997) Therm Acta 291:73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Silverstein RM, Bassler GC, Morrill TC (1981) Spectrometric identification of organic compounds. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sthehmel V, Scherzer T (1994) Eur Polym J 30:361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Strehmel B, Strehmel V, Younes M (1999) J Polym Sci Pol Phys 37:1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Strehmel B, Malpert JH, Sarker AM, Neckers DC (1999) Macromolecules 32:7476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sung CSP, Sung NH (1993) Mater Sci Eng A 162:241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Suzuki S, Fujii T, Yoshiike N, Komatsu S, Iida T (1978) Bull Chem Soc Jpn 51:2460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Suzuki S, Fujii T, Yoshiike N (1979) Chem Phys Lett 62:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tait JKF, Edwards HGM, Farwell DW, Yarwood J (1995) Spectrochim Acta A 51:2101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Torkelson JM, Quirin JC (2003) Polymer 44:423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Turri F (1998) In: Encyclopedia of polymer science and technology. 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wang Q, Storm BK, Houmoller LP (2003) J Appl Polym Sci 87:2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wang Q, Storm BK, Houmoller LP (2003) J Appl Polym Sci 87:2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Younes M, Wartewig S, Lellinger D, Strehmel B, Strehmel V (1994) Polymer 35:5269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yu JW, Sung CSP (1997) Polym Sci Prog 63:1769Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yuan L, Liang G, Xie J, Li L, Guo J (2006) Polymer 47:5338CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. M. Sales
    • 1
  • M. F. Diniz
    • 2
  • R. C. L. Dutra
    • 2
  • G. P. Thim
    • 1
  • D. Dibbern-Brunelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Fundamental Science – Chemistry DepartmentInstituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica – ITASão José dos CamposBrazil
  2. 2.Chemistry Division – AQIInstituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço – IAESão José dos CamposBrazil

Personalised recommendations