Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 45, Issue 21, pp 5851–5859 | Cite as

Effect of filler dispersion degree on the Joule heating stimulated recovery behaviour of nanocomposites

  • H. H. LeEmail author
  • I. Kolesov
  • Z. Ali
  • M. Uthardt
  • O. Osazuwa
  • S. Ilisch
  • H.-J. Radusch


Composites based on highly branched ethylene-1-octene copolymer (EOC) and carbon black (CB) with different dispersion degree of CB were prepared. The method of the online measured electrical conductance/resistance was used to monitor the change of the electrical conductance/resistance of the composites during the preparation processes, i.e. mixing and cross-linking. It was found that the kinetics of thermally stimulated shape-memory recovery of CB filled EOC is strongly influenced by the filler dispersion degree, which actually affects the heat transfer in the composites. Using a special arrangement of experiments the Joule heating stimulated shape-memory behaviour was quantified. CB dispersion degree and related electrical resistivity determine the extent of the Joule heating stimulated shape-memory behaviour. Composite collected at the maximum in the online measured conductance–time characteristics showed the best shape-memory effect owing to the highest electrical conductivity in the solid state. The CB filled EOC showed a negative thermal coefficient of resistivity (NTC) effect, which accelerates the temperature increase and shape-memory recovery of the composites when applying a voltage.


Carbon Black Joule Heating EPDM Dispersion Degree Carbon Black Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Lendlein A, Langer R (2002) Science 296:1673CrossRefADSPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lendlein A, Kelch S (2002) Angew Chem Int Ed 41:2034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Behl M, Lendlein A (2007) Mater Today 10:20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gunes IS, Cao F, Jana SC (2008) Polymer 49:2223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gunes IS, Jana SC (2008) J Nanosci Nanotechnol 8:1616CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lan X, Huang WM, Leng JS, Liu N, Phee LSJ, Yuan Q (2008) Gummi Fasern Kunstst 61:784Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leng J, Liu HL, Liu Y, Du S (2007) Appl Phys Lett 91:144105-1CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cho JW, Kim JW, Jung YC, Goo NS (2005) Macromol Rapid Commun 26:412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Paik IH, Goo NS, Jung YC, Cho JW (2006) Smart Mater Struct 15:1476CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jiang X, Bin Y, Matsuo M (2005) Polymer 46:7418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ni QQ, Zhang Ch, Fu Y, Dai G, Kimura T (2007) Compos Struct 81:176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meng Q, Hu J, Zhu Y (2007) J Appl Polym Sci 106:837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heinrich G, Klüppel M, Vilgis TA (2002) Curr Opinion Solid State Mater Sci 6:195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Takino H, Iwama S, Yamada Y (1997) Rubber Chem Technol 70:15Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hess WM, Chirico VE (1997) Rubber Chem Technol 50:301Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hess WM, Scott CE, Callan JE (1967) Rubber Chem Technol 40:371Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schuster RH, Meier J, Klüppel M (2000) Kautsch Gummi Kunstst 53:663Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Le HH, Tiwari M, Ilisch S, Radusch H-J (2006) Plast Rubber Compos Macromol Eng 35:410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Le HH, Ilisch S, Jakob B, Radusch HJ (2004) Rubber Chem Technol 77:147Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Le HH, Ilisch S, Steinberger H, Radusch H-J (2008) Plast Rubber Compos Macromol Eng 37:367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ali Z, Le HH, Ilisch S, Busse K, Radusch H-J (2009) J Appl Polym Sci 113:667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Le HH, Ilisch S, Radusch H-J (2009) Polymer 50:2294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kolesov IS, Kratz K, Lendlein A, Radusch H-J (2009) Polymer 50:5490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kolesov IS, Radusch H-J (2008) eXPRESS Polym Lett 2:461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Le HH, Ilisch S, Radusch H-J (2010) Electrically stimulatable shape-memory materials based on carbon black filled ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) and their blends. 10th European symposium on polymer blends, March 7–10, 2010. Dresden, Germany, Book of abstracts, p. 94Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Le HH, Tiwari M, Ilisch S, Radusch H-J (2005) Kautsch Gummi Kunstst 58:575Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stumpe NA, Railsback HE (1964) Rubber World 151:41Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang J, Feng S (2003) J Appl Polym Sci 89:3471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kantor Y, Webman I (1984) Phys Rev Lett 52:1891CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Klüppel M (2003) Adv Polym Sci 164:1Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kohjiya S, Katoh A, Suda T, Shimanuki J, Ikeda Y (2006) Polymer 47:3298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kaufman S, Slichter WP, Davis DD (1971) J Polym Sci A 9:829Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vieweg S, Unger R, Hempel E, Donth EJ (1998) Non-Cryst Solids 235:470CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Arrighi V, Higgins JS, Burgess AN, Floudas G (1998) Polymer 39:6369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Litvinov VM, Spiess HW (1991) Makromol Chem 192:3005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Srinivasan N, Bökamp K, Vennemann N (2005) Kautsch Gummi Kunstst 58:650Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Le HH, Heidenreich D, Kolesov IS, Ilisch S, Radusch H-J (2009) J Appl Polym Sci. doi: 30769
  38. 38.
    Tang H, Piao JH, Yang HL (1993) J Appl Polym Sci 48:1795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Klason C, Kubat J (1975) J Appl Polym Sci 19:831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Narkis M, Ram A, Flashner F (1978) Polym Eng Sci 18:649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Voet A (1981) Rubber Chem Technol 54:42Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Das NC, Chaki TK, Khastgir D (2003) J Appl Polym Sci 90:2073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhang J, Feng S (2003) J Appl Polym Sci 90:3889CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. H. Le
    • 1
    Email author
  • I. Kolesov
    • 1
  • Z. Ali
    • 1
  • M. Uthardt
    • 1
  • O. Osazuwa
    • 1
  • S. Ilisch
    • 1
  • H.-J. Radusch
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Engineering Sciences, Polymer TechnologyMartin Luther University Halle-WittenbergHalleGermany

Personalised recommendations