Photochemical modification of single-walled carbon nanotubes using HPHMP photoinitiator for enhanced organic solvent dispersion
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Photochemical modification of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was carried out by covalent attachment of 2-propanol-2-yl radicals on the surface of SWCNTs, which were engendered by the photolysis of 1-[4-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)-phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propane-1-one (HPHMP) under ultraviolet (UV) light. Pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (p-SWCNTs) were dispersed in acetone along with HPHMP photoinitiator. After that, the mixture was irradiated by UV light to generate the free radicals which were introduced onto the surface of SWCNTs. The modification of SWCNTs was supported by UV/visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry (TGA–MS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV/visible results revealed the loss of van Hove singularities due to covalent modification. The modification was further verified by FT-IR showing the signals at 3421 and 1100 cm−1 due to stretching and bending of O–H group, respectively. Moreover, other peaks at 2927 and 2858 cm−1 indicated the asymmetric and symmetric stretching modes of aliphatic C–H bond, respectively. Raman spectra illustrated that the intensity ratio of the tangential mode to the disorder mode (I G/I D), for modified SWCNTs (F-SWCNTs), decreased nearly four times than p-SWCNTs. TGA–MS also evidenced the signal corresponding to m/z 59 at 400 °C indicating the presence of 2-propanol-2-yl groups. TEM and dispersibility data demonstrated that the sidewall modification detached the bundled structure, enhanced the dispersion in common organic solvents and retained the original size of SWCNTs without hefty modification, which could cut or damage the nanotubes.
KeywordsCarbon Nanotubes Thermal Gravimetric Analysis Covalent Modification Common Organic Solvent Radial Breathing Mode
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