Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 21, pp 5725–5731 | Cite as

Effects of copper addition on microstructure and strength of the hybrid laser-TIG welded joints between magnesium alloy and mild steel

  • Liming Liu
  • Xiaodong Qi


Lap joint of magnesium alloy AZ31B to mild steel Q235 with the addition of copper interlayer by hybrid laser-TIG welding technique was investigated. The microstructure, element distribution at interfaces, and intermediate phases of joints were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that intermetallic compounds Mg2Cu with rod-like structure in the joint and equiaxed structure at interface were found, and the bonding between copper and steel was realized by mixing of copper and steel at upper margins of molten pool and a little solid solution of copper in iron at the bottom and side of molten pool. Besides, comparing with that without any interlayer, the wettability of molten magnesium alloy on steel was enhanced, which led to an intimate connection. In the end, the joining mechanism of magnesium–steel joints with copper interlayer was discussed.


Welding Fusion Zone Welding Speed Laser Welding Transitional Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors gratefully appreciate the sponsorship supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50675028) and Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20070141031).


  1. 1.
    Liu LM, Wang SX, Zhao LM (2008) Mater Sci Eng A 476:206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mordike BL, Ebert T (2001) Mater Sci Eng A 302:37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang ZD, Liu LM, Sun H, Wang L (2008) J Mater Sci 43:1382. doi: 10.1007/s10853-007-2299-x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Venkateswaran P, Xu ZH, Li XD, Reynolds AP (2009) J Mater Sci 44:4140. doi: 10.1007/s10853-009-3607-4 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen TP (2009) J Mater Sci 44:2573. doi: 10.1007/s10853-009-3336-8 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee CY, Lee WB, Kim JW, Choi DH, Yeon YM, Jung SB (2008) J Mater Sci 43:3296. doi: 10.1007/s10853-008-2525-1 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen YC, Nakata K (2009) Mater Des. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2009.03.007
  8. 8.
    Liu LM, Zhao X (2008) Mater Charact 59:1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu LM, Song G, Liang GL, Wang JF (2005) Mater Sci Eng A 390:76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lu SP, Fujii H, Nog K (2008) J Mater Sci 43:4583. doi: 10.1007/s10853-008-2681-3 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hassan SF, Gupta M (2002) Mater Res Bull 37:377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ho KF, Gupta M, Srivatsan TS (2004) Mater Sci Eng A 369:302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Magnabosco I, Ferro P, Bonollo F, Arnberg L (2006) Mater Sci Eng A 424:163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ramirez JE, Liu S, Olson DL (1996) Mater Sci Eng A 216:91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hashim J, Looney L, Hashmi MSJ (2002) J Mater Process Technol 119:324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eustathopoulos N, Nicholas MG, Drevet B (1999) Wettability at high temperatures. Pregamon materials series, vol 3. Elsevier, UKGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ipser H, Gnanasekaran T, Boser S, Mikler H (1995) J Alloys Compd 227:186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hong JW, Kang HS, Yoon WY, Lee SM (2007) Mater Sci Eng A 449–451:727Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hassan SF, Ho KF, Gupta M (2004) Mater Lett 58:2143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith JF, Christian JL (1960) Acta Metall 8:249CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Schools of Materials Science and EngineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina

Personalised recommendations