Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 13, pp 3402–3407 | Cite as

Hydrogen, porosity and oxide film defects in liquid Al



This article reports results from an experiment where a bubble of air was held at a constant temperature in a liquid Al melt, with the volume of the bubble monitored continuously using real-time X-ray equipment. When the H content of the surrounding melt was low, the volume of the trapped air bubble reduced with time, as the O and N in the bubble atmosphere reacted with the Al to form Al2O3 and AlN. When the H content of the melt was increased to about 0.3 ml 100 g−1 Al, the H in solution passed into the air bubble causing its expansion. In an Al casting the same effect would cause an entrained double oxide film defect to act as a site for the growth of H-driven gas porosity. The way in which the oxide film defects might behave in forming H porosity has been discussed.


Oxide Film Liquid Metal Small Bubble Bubble Volume Metal Stream 



The authors wish to thank Professor John Campbell of the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, and Professor John T. Berry of the Mississippi State University, Mississippi, USA, for helpful discussions in connection with the work. The authors also wish to thank Mr. A. Caden for his technical support, and the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of the Islamic Republic of Iran for its financial support.


  1. 1.
    Traenkner FO (1982) Mod Casting 70:36Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Caceres CH (1995) Scr Metall Mater 32:1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Griffin JA, Church J, Weiss D (2003) AFS Trans 111:289Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sigworth GK, Engh TA (1982) Metall Trans B 13B:447CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Talbot DEJ (1975) Int Metall Rev 20:166Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smithells CJ, Ransley CE (1935) Proc R Soc A A152:706CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Russell AS (1949) Met Prog 55:827Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ransley CE, Neufeld H (1948) J Inst Met 74:599Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weigel J, Fromm E (1990) Metall Trans B 21B:855CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Campbell J (1991) Castings. Butterworth-Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Raiszadeh R, Griffiths WD (2006) Metall Mater Trans B 37B:865CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Campbell J (2006) Mater Sci Technol 22:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tynelius K, Major F, Apelian D (1993) AFS Trans 101:401Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Atwood RC, Lee PD (2003) Acta Mater 51:5447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Felicelli SD, Escobar de Obaldia E, Pita CM (2007) AFS Trans 115, paper no. 078Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Raiszadeh R (2005) PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UKGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Raiszadeh R, Griffiths WD (2008) Metall Mater Trans B 39B:298CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zou J, Shivkumar S, Apelian D (1990) AFS Trans 178:871Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Impey S, Stephenson D, Nicholls JR (1990) In: Proc. conf. on the microscopy of oxidation, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 26–28 March 1990, Institute of Metals, London, p 238Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering and Physical SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgy and MaterialsShahid Bahonar University of KermanKermanIran

Personalised recommendations