Sol–gel derived composite from bioactive glass–polyvinyl alcohol
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Investigation of novel biomaterials for bone engineering is based on the development of porous scaffolds, which should match the properties of the tissue that is to be replaced. These materials need to be biocompatible, ideally osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and mechanically well-matched. In the present paper, we report the preparation and characterization of hybrid macroporous scaffold of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/bioactive glass through the sol–gel route. Hybrids containing PVA (80, 70 and 60 wt%) and bioactive glass with composition 58SiO2–33CaO–9P2O5 were synthesized by foaming a mixture of polymer solution and bioactive glass via sol–gel precursor solution. PVA with two different degree of hydrolysis (DH), 98.5% (high degree) and 80% (low degree) were also investigated, in order to evaluate the influence of residual acetate group present in polymer chain on the final structure and properties of 3D porous composite produced. The microstructure, morphology and crystallinity of the hybrid porous scaffolds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared Fourier Transform spectrometry (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) analysis. In addition, specific surface area was assessed by B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption method and mechanical behavior was evaluated by compression tests. Preliminary cytotoxicity and cell viability were also performed by the MTT assay. VERO cell monolayers were grown in 96-well microtiter plates. The results have clearly showed that hybrid foams of polyvinyl alcohol/bioactive glass (PVA/BG) with interconnected macroporous 3D structure were successfully produced. All the tested hybrids of PVA/BG have showed adequate cell viability properties for potential biological applications.
KeywordsFoam Simulated Body Fluid Bioactive Glass Gelation Time Hybrid Scaffold
The authors acknowledge National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and State of Minas Gerais Research Foundation (FAPEMIG) for financial support on this project. We are also grateful to Prof. Dr. Dagoberto Santos for the facilities of Electronic Microscopy Laboratory and Dr. Vilma Costa for the kind assistance on sol–gel processing.
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