Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 15, pp 6123–6132 | Cite as

Novel syntactic foams made of ceramic hollow micro-spheres and starch: theory, structure and properties

  • Md Mainul Islam
  • Ho Sung Kim
Article

Abstract

Novel syntactic foams for potential building material applications were developed using starch as binder and ceramic hollow micro-spheres available as waste from coal-fire power stations. Foams of four different micro-sphere size groups were manufactured with either pre- or post-mould gelatinization process. They were of ternary system including voids with a foam density range of approximately 0.33–0.44 g/cc. Compressive failure behaviour and mechanical properties of the manufactured foams were evaluated. Not much difference in failure behaviour or in mechanical properties between the two different processes (pre- and post-mould gels) was found for a given binder content. Compressive failure of all syntactic foams was of shear on plane inclined 45° to compressive loading direction. Failure surfaces of most syntactic foams were characterized by debonded micro-spheres. Compressive strength and modulus of syntactic foams were found to be dependant mainly on binder content but mostly independent of micro-sphere size. Some conditions of relativity arising from properties of constituents leading to the rule of mixtures relationships for compressive strength and to understanding of compressive/transitional failure behaviour were developed. The developed relationships based on the rule of mixtures were partially verified. Some formation of starch webs on failure surfaces was discussed.

Keywords

Starch Foam Compressive Strength Starch Content Binder Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

One of the authors (M. M. Islam) gratefully acknowledges the University of Newcastle Postgraduate Research Scholarship (UNRS) and International Postgraduate Research Scholarship (IPRS). The authors thank Envirospheres Pty Ltd, Australia for supplying ceramic hollow micro-spheres for this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Kim HS, Plubrai P (2004) Compos Part A – Appl Sci Manufact 35:1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Narkis M, Gerchcovich M, Puterman M, Kenig S (1982) J Cell Plastics July/August:230Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Narkis M, Puterman M, Kenig S (1980) J Cell Plastics Nov/Dec:326Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Luxmoore AR, Owen DRJ (1982) Mechanics of cellular plastics. Applied Science Publishers Ltd, London, p 359Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rizzi E, Papa E, Corigliano A (2000) Int J Solids Struct 37:5773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim HS, Oh HH (2000) J Appl Polym Sci 76:1324Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kishore NG, Woldesenbet E, Sankaran S (2001) J Mater Sci 36:4485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta N, Woldesenbet E, Kishore (2002) J Mater Sci 37:3199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Narkis M, Puterman M, Boneh H (1982) Poly Eng Sci 22:417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lawrence E, Wulfsohn D, Pyrz R (2001) Polym Polym Compos 9:449Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lawrence E, Pyrz R (2001) Polym Polym Compos 9:227Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Verweij H, De With G, Veeneman D (1985) J Mater Sci 20:1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Puterman M, Narkis M (1980) J Cell Plastics July/August:223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kenig S, Raiter I, Narkis M (1984) J Cell Plastics Nov/Dec:423Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meter C. Syntactic foam core material for composite structures, International patent classification : B29C, 65/00, B29D 9/00, B32B 3/26, 5/18Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim HS, Oh HH (1999) In: Bandyopadhyay S, Gowripalan N, Rizkalla S, Ditta P, Bhattacharyya D (eds) Proceedings of the first ACUN international composites meeting on composites: innovation and structural applications, February 1999. University of New South Wales, Sydney, p 83Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Te Nijenhuis K, Addink R, van Der Vegt AK (1989) Polym Bull 21:467Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim HS (2003) Syntactic foam, International Publication Number: WO 03/074598 A1, International Patent Classification: C08J 9/32, International Patent Application Number: PCT/AU03/00250, International Publication Date: 12 SeptGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim HS. Cenosphere composite and method for preparing same, Australian patent application No: 2004903795. PCT Patent Application No. PCT/AU2005/001009 (Title: Method of forming syntactic foams)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Banks W, Greenwood CT (1975) In: Starch and its components. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, p 259Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built EnvironmentThe University of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia

Personalised recommendations