Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 1529–1541 | Cite as

Severe plastic deformation (SPD) and nanostructured materials by machining

  • Srinivasan Swaminathan
  • M. Ravi Shankar
  • Balkrishna C. Rao
  • W. Dale Compton
  • Srinivasan Chandrasekar
  • Alexander H. King
  • Kevin P. Trumble
Nano May 2006


Large plastic strains between 1 and 15 can be imposed in chips formed by plane-strain (2-D) machining of metals and alloys. This approach has been used to examine microstructure changes induced by large strain deformation in model systems—copper and its alloys, precipitation-hardenable aluminum alloys, high-strength materials such as titanium, Inconel 718 and 52100 steel, and an amorphous alloy. It is shown that materials with average grain sizes in the range of 60 nm–1 μm can be created by varying the parameters of machining, which in turn affects the deformation processes. Furthermore, a switch-over from an elongated subgrain microstructure to an equi-axed nanocrystalline microstructure, with a preponderance of large-angle grain boundaries, has been demonstrated at the higher levels of strain in several of these materials. This switch-over can be readily controlled by varying the deformation conditions. Dynamic recrystallization has been demonstrated in select material systems under particular conditions of strain and temperature. This study may be seen as providing an important bridge between furthering the understanding of microstructural refinement by large strain deformation and the practical utilization of nanostructured materials in structural and mechanical applications. Conventional plane-strain machining has been shown to be a viable SPD method for examining the underlying processes of very large strain deformation.


Shear Strain Amorphous Alloy Severe Plastic Deformation Deformation Zone Chip Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to thank the Department of Energy (grant 4000031768 via UT-Batelle), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Ford Motor Company, the State of Indiana’s 21st Century Research and Technology Fund, the NSF (Grants DMI 0500216 and CMS 0200509) and the USAF–PEWG program (via Anteon Corporation) for supporting this work. Additional thanks are also due Drs. Andrew Sherman (Ford) and Ray Johnson (ORNL) for their encouragement of the studies. SS would like to acknowledge support of a National Research Council Fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Srinivasan Swaminathan
    • 1
  • M. Ravi Shankar
    • 2
  • Balkrishna C. Rao
    • 1
  • W. Dale Compton
    • 1
  • Srinivasan Chandrasekar
    • 1
  • Alexander H. King
    • 3
  • Kevin P. Trumble
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Materials Processing and Tribology, School of Industrial EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.School of Materials EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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