Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 12, pp 4398–4405 | Cite as

Application of uniform design in optimisation of three stage ageing of Al–Cu–Mg alloys

  • N. GaoEmail author
  • M. J. Starink
  • N. Kamp
  • I. Sinclair


The hardness variations and precipitation behaviour during the three-stage ageing of three Al–Cu–Mg alloys were investigated using micro-hardness testing and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To facilitate the determination of an optimised heat treatment, a uniform design method was employed by which the influences of three-stage interrupted ageing on the hardness and precipitation can be elucidated with a limited number of experiments. It is found that optimised heat treatment with maximum hardness can be achieved for non-stretched materials by applying the method of three-stage ageing, but there is no obvious effect for stretched T351 materials. A long initial Stage I and a suitable Stage II ageing time are beneficial for hardness, and the Stage II ageing at 25 °C shows more beneficial effect than ageing at 65 °C. The hardness increase in Stage I and Stage III ageing is closely related to the S phase content.


Differential Scanning Calorimetry Ageing Time Differential Scanning Calorimetry Curve Uniform Design Fatigue Crack Growth Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Starink MJ, Gao N, Davin L, Yan J, Cerezo A (2005) Phil Mag 85:1395Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Starink MJ, Gao N, Kamp N, Wang SC, Pitcher PD, Sinclair I (2006) Mater Sci Eng A 418:241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Somoza A, Dupasquier A, Polmear IJ, Folegali P, Ferragut R (2000) Phys Rev B61:14454Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lumley RN, Polmear LJ, Morton AJ (2001) In: Proceedings from Materials Soultions Conference, 5–8 November. Indianapolis, IN, ASM International, p 248Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dupasquier A, Ferragut R, Folegali P, Massazza M, Riontino G, Somoza A (2002) Materials Science Form 396–402:783Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Macchi CE, Somoza A, Dupasquier A, Polmear IJ (2003) Acta Mater 51:5151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Riontino G, Massazza M (2004) Phil Mag 84:967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lumley RN, Polmear IJ, Morton AJ (2005) Mater Sci Techn 21:1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lumley RN, Polmear IJ, Morton AJ (2002) Mater Sci Form 396–402:893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lumley RN, Morton AJ, Polmear LJ (2002) Acta Mater 50:3597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buha J, Lumley RN, Munroe PR, Crosky AG (2004) In: Nie JF, Morton AJ, Muddle BC (eds) Proceedings of 9th international conference on aluminium alloys. Brisbane, Australia, p 1167Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Starink MJ, Sinclair I, Gao N, Kamp N, Gregson PJ, Pitcher PD, Levers A, Gardiner S (2002) Mater Sci Form 396–402:601Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gao N, Starink MJ, Davin L, Cerezo A, Wang S, Gregson PJ (2005) Mater Sci Techn 21:1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Starink MJ (2004) Int Mater Rev 49:191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Starink MJ, Wang SC (2003) Acta Mater 51:5131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kamp N, Starink MJ, Sinclair I, Gao N, Gregson PJ, Pitcher PD, Gardiner S (2004) In: Nie JF, Morton AJ, Muddle BC (eds) Proceedings of 9th international conference on aluminium alloys. Brisbane, Australia, p 369Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fang KT, Wang Y (1994) Number-theoretic methods in statistics. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li R, Lin DKJ, Chen Y (2004) Int J Materials Product Technol 20:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fang KT (1980) Acta Math Appl Sin 3:362Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Starink MJ, Yan J (2003) In: Tiryakioglu M, Lalli LA (eds) Proceedings of ASM Materials Solutions Conference 2003, 1st International Symposium on Metallurgical Modeling for Al Alloys. Pittsburgh, USA, p 119Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kamp N, Gao N, Starink MJ, Sinclair I (2004) Unpublished Research Report, University of SouthamptonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Starink MJ, Cerezo A, Yan JL, Gao N (2006) Phil Mag Lett 86:243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Starink MJ, Wang SC (2005) Int Mater Rev 50:193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang SC, Starink MJ, Gao N (2006) Scr Mater 54:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yan J (2004) MPhil/PhD Transfer Thesis, University of Southampton, UKGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Massazza M, Riontino G (2002) Phil Mag Lett 82:495CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Research Group, School of Engineering SciencesUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.Manchester Materials Science CentreUMISTManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations